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Ali Bahrami. Boeing Applied Object-Oriented Analysis . Object- Oriented Design Axioms .. The top-down approach supports abstraction at the. Object-oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD) is a software engineering .. is then broken down into several steps, each of which can be logically assigned to one of the Travel awards tracks bonus free travel Source: Bahrami, Ali, “ Object Oriented Systems Development,” Tata McGraw-Hill Education. modeling language to object”, oriented analysis and design and unified ali bahrami pdf free download empirical validation of object oriented design metrics.
The book is written for junior level students. There is no mathematical approach for any concept. They have explained every single concept and definition. The book is especially dedicated to introduce basics to students. There is no scope for arguments as author has cleared all the concepts at starting of every chapter and therefore leaving no doubts behind. He has systematically narrated each and every point with clean diagrams.
Object Analysis: Classification Chapter 8: Object Relationship Analysis.
Unit — 4 Chapter 9: Designing Classes: Defining Attributes and Methods Chapter Object Storage and Access Layer Chapter Designing the View Layer: Unit — 5 Chapter Download Complete Book: I recommend that it will be the best book to cover the whole syllabus and will also be good to clear the basic concept of Object oriented Software Engineering.
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Popular Recent Computer Fundamentals — by P. Bali Pdf Sep 30, Java Program to check the balanced parenthesis using Stack Algorithm May 28, The dynamic model is constructed for only a few aspects and the functional model enters in only a very partial fashion. Every object class in the system is thus represented by a package.
Behavior of an object — The protocol of the object together with the list of operations with which other objects can out on it. Concurrency of objects — the behavior of an object can be either sequential or concurrent. They constitute one of the forms of the basic OOD notation. Protocol of an object — The list of operations that the object in question can perform on other objects that is the set of OSE relationships originally from the object.
Relationships — The static model has. The definition of the object diagrams is rather surprising in view of the fact that the number of objects can be very great. The basic concepts of the object and class diagram are as follows: A category is a set of classes grouped together by subject or theme.
A class diagram describes the hierarchies of classes of objects with links between classes. Relations between these by lines carrying different MO types corresponding to different semantics of the relations The textual notation corresponding to these diagrams enables the following to be specified for each class.
Classes of objects are represented by small clouds with dotted outlines. This is similar to database views. It is a simple step-by-step graph showing the order in which the operations are performed on the various objects. Analysis Design Evolution Modification Fig 2. OOD recommends an incremental approach. Rules that dictate how these building blocks may be put together 3. Grouping things 4. Building blocks of UML 2. Behavioral things 3.
Relationships 3. Things 2. Structural things 2. Diagrams Things: Interface c. Component g. A class implements one or more interfaces. Use case e. Graphically interfaces are rendered as a mode together with its name. Collaboration d. Class b. Active Class f. H is rendered just like class with heavy lines. One primary kind of grouping is package. These are the boxes into which or model can be decomposed. Display State Machine It is a behavior that specifies the sequences if states an object or an interaction goes through during its lifetime in response to events together with its response to those events.
Package A package is a general-purpose mechanism for organizing elements into groups. All other grouping things can be placed in package.
OOAD-Ali Bahrami | Class (Computer Programming) | Object (Computer Science)
It includes only its name and sometimes its contents. An interaction involves a number of elements including messages. These are the verbs of models. Graphically a node is rendered as a cube. Aggregation is a special kind of association representing a structural relationship between whole and its parts.
A node is a simply a symbol for rendering constraint and comments attacked to an element or a collection of elements These are the comments you may apply to describe. There are four kinds of relationships in the UML UML includes nine diagrams: A diagram may contain any combination of things and relationships. You will encounter realization relationship in two places o Between interfaces o The classes or components.
Diagram is a projection into a system. It can be representing with adornments. Notation starts with basic symbols. Divisions of class and object and interfaces and implementations in a diagram.
For example the notation of class has private. Customer Chan: Customer 2. It contains objects. A time constraint is a semantic statement about the relative or absolute value of time Location is the placement of component on a mode.
Thread specifies lightweight flow that can execute concurrently with other threads within the same process. State chart diagram — founded on the changing state of a system driven by events. Use case diagram — organizes the behavior of the system. Sequence diagram — focused on the time ordering of message 3.
Each class have unique name The name alone is known as simple name. Collaboration diagrams — focused on the structural organization of objects that send and receive messages 4. In other words. An attribute represents some property of the thing you are modeling that is shared by all objects of that class.
A mechanism is a design patterns that applies to a society of classes. Model the mechanism as collaboration. The UML is such as graphical language. In particular. This means that it is possible to map from model in the UML to a programming language such as java. Typically projects and organizations develop their own language.
Identify the elements in a specific of the design pattern that must be bound to elements in a specific context and render them as parameters to the collaboration. To address these problems o Models should be written in UML. The UML also provides a language for expressing requirements for tests. The reverse is also possible. Mapping permits forward engineering. The UML addresses the documentation of a system is architecture and all of its details.
The generation of ode from a UML model into a programming language. Aggregation is really just a special kind of association and is specified by adoring a plain association with an open diamond at the whole end. This kind of relationship is called aggregation. You can reconstruct a model from an implementation back into the UML. Discuss about the static model? Write the use of Collaboration diagram?
Discuss the merits and demerits? Discuss the various models of ooad? Differentiate the static and dynamic model? Discuss the importance of UML? Discuss about the patterns? And how far it is efficiently utilized?
In the UML. Write a note on functional model? Prepare a portion of a class diagram for library checkout system that shows the late charges for an overdue book as a derived attribute 2. Write a note on dynamic model? Structural Diagrams. Class diagrams are the most commons diagram found in modeling objectsoriented systems. Behavioral Diagrams 3. Interfaces and collaborations and their relationships.
A class diagram shows a set of classes. Class Diagram: Class Name Attribute: Node Node 3. Component 3. You can think of the dynamic aspects of a systems as representing it changing parts.
You use component diagrams to illustrate the static implementation view of a system. A component diagram describes the organization of the physical components in a system. Object name: Class name 2. You use deployment diagrams to illustrate the static deployment view of architecture. A deployment diagram shows a set of nodes and their relationships. An activity shows a set of activity. A collaboration diagram shows a set of objects links among those objects.
You apply use case diagrams to illustrate the static use case view of a system. Collaborations Collaboration is society of classes. You use state chart diagrams to illustrate the dynamic view of a system. Collaboration is also the specifications of how an element. A sequence diagram shows a set of object and the messages sent ad received sent and received by more objects.
Consider the individual scenarios that represents this use case. Capture the organization of these structural elements in class diagrams. Each scenario represents a specific path through the use case. Use collaboration diagrams if you want to emphasis the structural relationships among these objects as they collaborated. A behavioral part specifies the dynamics of how those elements interact. Use sequence diagrams if you want to emphasis the time ordering of messages.
Capture the dynamics of these scenarios in interaction diagrams. Organize these structural and behavior elements as a collaboration that you can connect to the use case via realization. Identify those structural elements necessary and sufficient to carry and the semantics of the use case. If the operation is complex or otherwise requires some detailed design work. Expand on the structural and behavioral part of each collaboration.
Each process and thread within a system defines a distinct of control and with each flow. These mechanisms are driven by the overall architectural state you choose to improve op your implementations. If the operation is trivial. Validate these mechanisms early in the development life cycle.
Represent each of these mechanisms as a collaboration. If the operation is algorithmically intensive. To better visualize the sequence of a message. Sequence Number Message 2: Clidk At p View C: Controller 2. You can explicitly model the order of the message relative to the start of the sequence by prefixing the message with a sequence number set apart by a colon separator. Most commonly. Lacte Nested flow of control 2: You can specify a procedural or nested flow of control.
That name alone is known as simple name. Student Felwa: Square Simple Name Pathname Attributes An attribute is named properly of a class that describes a range of values that instances of the property may hold. You can associate timing marks with a sequence. An attribute represents some properly of the thing you are modeling that is shared by all objects if that class.
A path name is the class name prefixed by the name of the package in which class lives. Emp Name Address Phone Operations An operation is the implementation if of a service that can be requested from any object of the class to affect behavior. Each class have unique names. In order words. Names are a textual string to differentiate from other classes. Classifiers include classes. A grouping of elements of which some constitute a specification of the behavior offered by the order-contained elements.
A description of a set of a sequence of actions including variants. The specification if an asynetmnous stimulus communicated between instances. A class is a description of a set of objects that share the same attributes. A physical and replaceable part of a system that conforms to and provides the realization of a set of interfaces. A physical element that exists at runtime and that represents a computational resource. The most important kind of classifier to the UML is the class.
A type whose values have no identified including primitive built in types. Interface Data type Signal Component Node — — — — — A collection of operators that are used to specify a service of a class or a component. Multiplicity applies to attributes. The visibility of factors specifies whether other classifiers use it.
Company 1. Add only — For attributes with a multiply greater than one. Frozen — the attributes value may not be changes after the object are initialized. An output parameter In out.
For a template class the result is a concrete class that can be used fust like any ordinary class. A template includes slots for classes. Most often you will use togged values to extend class properties. The most common use of template classes is to specify containers that can be instantiated for specific elements making them type safe. In-An input parameter Out. You will mainly want to use frozen when modeling constant or write once attribute. There are three defined properties that you can use with attributes.
Operating In an operation at the most abstract level. Object-oriented design patterns typically show relationships and interactions between classes or objects.
Specifies a classifier whose objects are children of a given parent. Power type. It is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations.
A design pattern is not a finished design that can be transformed directly into code. A responsibility is a contract or obligation of a type or class and is rendered in a note attacked to a class. A state machine is a behavior that specifies the sequence of states an object goes through during its response to events.
Specify the pre and post conditions of each operation. NOTES 3. Specify a state machine for the class. A mechanism is a design pattern that applies to a society of classes. A framework is an architectural pattern that provides an extensive template for applications within a domain.
Specify the semantics of the class as a whole using structured text. Specify collaboration has a structural part. Specify the pre and post conditions of each operation plus the invariants of the class as a whole. These elements are rendered in notes attacked to the operation or class by a dependency relationship. Algorithms are not thought of as design patterns. Metaclass —Specifies a classifiers whose objects are children of a given parent. Utility — Specifies a class whose attributes and operations are all class scoped.
Efforts have also been made to codify design patterns in particular domains. Specify the responsibilities of the class. Modeling an architectural pattern. Identify the elements of the design patterns that must be bound to elements in a specific context and render them as parameters to the collaborations. Expose the slofs. Model the framework as a stereotyped package. For the most part. Define association between classes Define class hierarchy and design with inheritance.
Define attributes. Design the access layer Create mirror classes: For every business class identified and created. Design methods and protocols by utilizing a UML activity diagram. Activities of Object. Refine and complete the static UML class diagram. The specification of subsystems that perform required functions and provide infrastructure support. Iterate and refine again. A description of objects that form the building blocks of the system and a description of the communication mechanisms that allows data to flow between layers.
Identify access layer class relation ships. Iterate and refine. The components are such as classes. Design the micro level user interface. Method Classes: Revisit the classes that consist of only one or two methods to see if they can be eliminated or combined with existing classes.
Redundant Classes: Select one an eliminate the other classes. Axioms of Object-Oriented Design Axiom1: Reapply the design axions and. It maintains the independence of components. Each component must satisfy that requirements without other requirements. Build a prototype of the view layer interface. It is used to eliminate redundant classes and structures. A corollary is a proposition that from an axions or another proposition that has been proven.
It applies during design process of a system. It minimizes the information content of the design. Design the view layer objects by applying the design Axions. Literate and refine again 3.
A theorem is a proposition that may not be self-evident but can be proven from accepted axions. The information axiom. Iterate and refine the whole design. What are the design attribute What do you meant by design pattern Explain about the multiplicity in OO design Differentiate the super class and subclass? Discuss the necessity for documentation Write a note on modeling techniques discuss about the object modeling techniques How do you design the design pattern for the object-oriented software?
It can implement through inheritance and the systems built in classes. A use-case model can be instrumental in project development. A use case is a narrative document that describes the sequence of event an actor performs using a system to complete a process. Number of copies Borrower — Name. Jacabson early s. Wherent unit of functionality or task. Communication associations: Links between actors and use cases. Books — Author. Actors user of the system: Anything external to the system — not only people: Class is used to define the attributes.
An actor denoted a user interacting directly with the system. Borrow book. An actor may be external device or system. Some classes are taken from built in classes for implementation ifa specific operation All classes must make sense in the application domain. These are implemented in design phrase itself. In this approach iterative process is implemented. Use cases are used to identify requirements.
Look for nouns and noun phrases. Classes may be added or removed from the model dynamically. Nouns in the textual description are considered to be classes and verbs to be methods of the class.
In object oriented programming. Object types provide an index for system process. Object can be categorized into more than one way. Places Class: Choose appropriate vocabulary. Formulate a statement of purpose for each candidate. Select any one. To communicate with others. Attributes such as who.
Choose whether the object represented by the noun behave differently when the adjective is applied to it. Identifying relevant classes and eliminating irrelevant classes is an incremental process. It correspondents to a verb or promotional phrase A reference from one class to another is an association.
It is not relationship among objects. Student object fee is a part of it. ACCn number. The association name can be omitted if the relationship if default.
Company has a name. Restate ternary association as binary associations. It used to communicate with other classes and objects. A customer places an order with an operation person. It is concerned with implementation or design or the class. Determine the capability of class and it needs with their relationships. An Example. Properties of aggregation. Inherit it by creating new class with their own attributes and methods.
Super — sub class relationships Guidelines for identifying super-sub relationships. Specialize only when the subclasses have significant behavior. Behavior each is unique.
Making the relationship between two classes can be useful to interface to share attributes rough objects. It also more difficult to understand programs written is a multiple inheritance.
It can be defined in terms of other associations. Avoid this association because theses are redundant terms. Group then by moving common attributes and methods to an abstract class. A-part-of Relationship patterns To identify a-part-of structures. Propagation The state of the whole is determined by the state of the parts. Collection-member A conceptual whole encompasses parts that may be physical or conceptual.
Assembly An assembly is constructed from its parts and an assembly part situation physically exists. A fridge can be container for fruits. Example A bicycle is an assembly of wheel. A correct team is a collection of players. The CRC forms provide a mechanism for following through a scenario. Information about are thing should be localized with a single class. Each responsibility should be stated as generally as possible.
Responsibilities should be shared arrows related classes when appropriate. Information and the behavior related to it should reside within the same class. The idea is to organize the relationships between the classes on the basis of fulfilling a scenario.
Class name: With drawl Super class: Transaction Role: Store withdraws transaction information. A description of object Classes the form the building clocks of the system.
PIN validate a withdraw transaction card. Aim Id and Amount. Description of the communication mechanisms that allow data to flow layers. Knowing date. Validate a customer card. CRC formed can also be used early in the design process as a discovery aid. Super class: Bank Super class: Nil Role: When the operations and responsibilities of a class identified through design reviews.
Reapply the design axioms and. For every Business class identified and created. A corollary is a preposition that follows from an axioms or another proposition that has been proven. A theorem is a preposition that may not be key-orient but can be proven from accepted ascoms. It maintaining the independence of components. Corollary can be called as design rules Corollary 1 Uncoupled — design with less information content: In this rule the main goal is to maximize object.
It minimum the information content of the design. It is because a minimal amount of essential information needed to be passes between components. Whensivenets among objects and software components in order to improve coupling. These will useful in making specific design decisions. Each component must satisfy that requirement without other requirements. Minimizing complexity should be goal. It depends on the interface complexity between modules.
For both to read and write operation of attributes. It involves explicit control of the processing logic of one object by another. It refers the single purposes ness of an object. Inheritance cohesion concerned with interrelation of classes with attributes. Method cohesion like function cohesion means that a method should carry only one function.
IT is exhibited in the portion of structure. This should be the goal of an architectural design. It is very common in most software designs. It occurs often on object or module makes use of data or control information maintained within the boundary of another object or module.
It refers to attributes or methods of another object. Coincidentally cohesion is a cohesion that performs tasks that are related logically each other objects. Cross-reference to related design patterns. Designing well-defined public. Public visibility allows all other classes to view the marked information. The private protocols of the class includes message that normally should not be send from other objects. The solution that motivates these forces. Define the class hierarchy and design with inheritance.
Iterate and refine the class system. Protected visibility allows child classes to accesses information they inherited from a parent class. The classes that are required to implement the solution classes. It is accessible only to operations of the class.
Guidance that leads to effective implementation Example source code or source code templates. Attribute Types 1. It is reference to reference to another object It provides the mapping needed by an object to fulfill its responsibilities. Multiplicity or multi value attributes Instance connection 4. Example a person can have more than one account. In the analysis phrase. The public protocol defines the stated behavior of the class as global and it is accessible to all classes.
In the design phrase. Visibility name: To list the student who have scored above marks. It can have a collection of many values at any point in time. Example name. The public. How to perform the association between objects and classes in detail 3. What do you meant by Class Visibility? Design a Railway reservation system with object oriented approach 2.
Represent the ex. Identify the super class and sub class in the above design 5. Analyze the railway system in detail? It monitors and tries to improve the development process from the beginning of the project to ensure this.
Quality assurance is an essential activity for any business thay producer products to be used by others. Quality Assurance makes sure the project will be completed based on the previously agreed specifications.
A method to evaluate whether learners can demonstrate abilities and skills related to content being taught. Three kinds of error: Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs.
Debugging tends to be harder when various subsystems are tightly coupled. In procedural programming a unit may be an individual program. System testing falls within the scope of black box testing.
System testing of software or hardware is testing conducted on a complete. A unit is the smallest testable part of an application. System testing is an investigatory testing phase. NOTES 5. Stabs are simple components.
Design flaws can thus be detected early and corrected. As well. Bottom-up testing Bottom-up approach is essentially piecing together systems to give rise to grander systems. Top-down testing should be used with top-down program development so that a module is tested as soon as it is coded. Individual component are tested to ensure that they operate correctly. In a bottomup approach the individual base elements of the system are first specified in great detail. As well: There is less overhead than with the big bang method: No drivers need to be written when top-down testing is used.
It tests the coding step by step. This model can be presented to the user for an early test of the system. Top-down testing provides an early working model of the program. Top-down Testing Top-down software testing is an incremental unit testing method which begins by testing the top level module. While automated tools do exist which ease the writing of both stubs and drivers. These elements are then linked together to form larger subsystems. Regression bugs occur whenever software functionality that previously worked as desired.
Next after code reviews. It is conducted manually. Effective regression tests generate sufficient code execution coverage to exercise all meaningful code branches. A representative sample of tests. Regression testing Regression testing is any type of software testing which seeks to uncover regression bugs.
After a smoke test proves that the pipes will not leak. Sometimes the tests are performed by the automated system that builds the final software. It refers to the first test made after repairs or first assembly to provide some assurance that the system under test will not catastrophically fail. Smoke testing Smoke testing is a term used in plumbing.
It involves testing the modules at the lower levels in the hierarchy. The subset of test to be executed contains three different classes of test cases. Typically regression bugs occur as an unintended consequence of program changes.
In software engineering. In bottom-up testing. Validation is done during or at the end of the development process in order to determine whether the product satisfies specified requirements. It is deigned for time — critical projects. Verification involves checking that the program conforms to its specification. It should included significant amounts of contingency so that pages in design and implementation can be accommodated and staff allocated to testing can be deployed in other activities.
Validation and Verification processes go hand in hand. Test plan. Test plan is not a static document. Functional design Verification etc. Statistical testing and defect testing are used to meet the dual objective of the validation verification process. The software product should functionally do what it is supposed to. Each Verification activity such as Requirement Specification Verification. The phases involved in Validation process are: It is the task of predicting correspondence.
It should be revised as testing is an activity. Test Methods. Service and Repair test.
Objective of the test: DMC NOTES Test plan documents the strategy that will be used to verify and ensure that a hardware product or system meets its design specifications and other requirements.
Test Coverage. A test plan is usually prepared by or with significant input from Test Engineers. Test analysis: Test Coverage is derived from design specifications and other requirements. Manufacturing or Production test. Depending on the product and the responsibility of the organization to which the test plan applies.
Development of a test case: Test coverage for different product life stages may overlap. Acceptance or Commissioning test. Test plan document formats can be as varied as the products and organizations to which they apply.
Test coverage in the test plan states what requirements will be verified during what stages of the product life. It may take many test cases to determine that a requirement is fully satisfied. The test plan should contain a schedule and list of required resources.
Determine type of testing. Test cases are often incorrectly referred to as test scripts. Test scripts are lines of code used mainly in automation tools. It reduces the time and energy required to keep code well-tested. Characteristics of bugs provide some dues: The symptom may be result by human error that is not easily braved. The system may be due to causes that are distributed across a number of tasks running on different processors.
The symptom may be intermittent. User Satisfaction Test User satisfaction testing is the process of quantifying the usability test with some measurable attribute of the test.
The symptom may be a result a turning problems. The symptom may disappear. The symptom may actually be caused by no errors. It may be difficult to accurately reproduce input conditions. To provide clear understanding of completed design is to evaluate. To detect and evaluate changes during the design process To provide a periodic changes during the design process To provide a periodic indication of divergence of opinion about the current design.
Develop an interval infrastructure to support continuous testing. Public improvements as they are made and let people know what they are doing better.
To enable pinpointing specific indication areas of dissatisfaction for remedy. Look for leaders who will commit to and own the process Measure and document your findings in a defect recording system. Carefully examine routines having fewer than 5 or more 25 executives statements.
Make sure to involve the user in creation of the test. Read the comments very carefully. Use the information from user satisfaction test. Use indentation. The user satisfaction test spreadsheet USIS automates many book keeping tasks and can assets in analyzing the user satisfaction level.
Source code clarity is enhanced by structured coding techniques. The pr5imary goal of implementation is to write source code and internal document so that conformance of the code to its specification can be easily verified.
Use in a disciplined way. Introduce user-defined data types to model entities in the problem domain. Conduct the test regularly and frequently 5. It shoes pattern in user satisfaction level The user satisfaction test can be a tool for finding out what attribute are important or unimportant.
Hide data structure behind access functions. Avoid then. Subroutines length will not exceed 30 lines. The nesting depth of program constructs should be five or loss in normal circumstances. The nested depth of program constructs will not exceed five levels. A guideline rephrases these specifications in the following manner.
Parture from normal circumstances requires approval by the project leader. The maintenance programmer must analyze each request.
The implementation process contains software preparation and transition activities. The number of executable statement in a sub program should not exceed 30 in normal circumstances. The use of goto statement should be avoided in normal circumstances. The problem and modification analysis process. The process considering the implementation of the modification itself. The process acceptance of the modification, by checking it with the individual who submitted the request in order to make sure the modification provided a solution.
The migration process platform migration, for example is exceptional, and is not part of daily maintenance tasks. If the software must be ported to another platform without any change in functionality, this process will be used and a maintenance project team is likely to be assigned to this task.
Finally, the last maintenance process, also an event which does not occur on a daily basis, is the retirement of a piece of software Way of maintenance 1. All of these programs all of these sources statements have to be corrected when faults were detected modified as user requirements changed purchased. These activities were collectively called software maintenance. The changes due to enhancements brought about changing customer requirements.
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