This file documents the GNU make utility, which determines automatically which pieces of This is Edition , last updated 21 May , of The GNU Make. O'Reilly Media, Inc. Managing Projects with GNU Make, the image of a potto, . The GNU version of make, already the choice of most serious coders when the. The GNU Make Book is a practical, thorough guide to GNU Make basics, solutions, and advanced uses. Print Book and FREE Ebook (PDF), $ Ebook (PDF Download an excerpt from Chapter 4: Pitfalls and Problems (PDF). GNU.
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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. John Graham-Cumming is a longtime GNU make expert. The GNU Make Book 1st Edition, Kindle Edition .. Download. This edition focuses on the GNU version of make, which has deservedly become The Power of GNU Make for Building Anything Download Example Code. CS/Resources/The GNU Make ukraine-europe.info Find file Copy path. Fetching contributors Cannot retrieve contributors at this time. MB. Download History .
The Make program is indispensable to maintainers of free software systems. The GNU Make manual, written by the program's original authors, is the definitive tutorial. It also includes an introductory chapter for novice users. The Make utility automates the process of compilation; it is especially useful when the source files of large programs change. It is a small program with a lot of power.
English ISBN Book Description The Make program is indispensable to maintainers of free software systems. About the Authors Richard M. Stallman is the founder of the Free Software movement. Reviews, Ratings, and Recommendations: Amazon Related Book Categories: GNU Make: All Categories. Recent Books. IT Research Library.
Miscellaneous Books. Computer Languages. You will see make in most projects. It enables developers to easily compile large and complex programs with many components.
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This article shows you how to have fun with make. Large projects can contain thousands of lines of code, distributed in multiple source files, written by many developers and arranged in several subdirectories. A project may contain several component divisions. These components may have complex inter-dependencies — for example, in order to compile component X, you have to first compile Y; in order to compile Y, you have to first compile Z; and so on.
GNU Make in Detail for Beginners
For a large project, when a few changes are made to the source, manually recompiling the entire project each time is tedious, error-prone and time-consuming.
Make is a solution to these problems. It can be used to specify dependencies between components, so that it will compile components in the order required to satisfy dependencies.
An important feature is that when a project is recompiled after a few changes, it will recompile only the files which are changed, and any components that are dependent on it.
This saves a lot of time.
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Make is, therefore, an essential tool for a large software project. Each project needs a Makefile — a script that describes the project structure, namely, the source code files, the dependencies between them, compiler arguments, and how to produce the target output normally, one or more executables.
Whenever the make command is executed, the Makefile in the current working directory is interpreted, and the instructions executed to produce the target outputs.
The Makefile contains a collection of rules, macros, variable assignments, etc. You have to install it, either using the package-management system, or by manually compiling from source. We have three files below: Since module. Here, module. By convention, all variable names used in a Makefile are in upper-case.
Makefiles use as the comment-start marker, just like in shell scripts.
You may be wondering why the order of the make targets and commands in the Makefile are not the same as that of the manual compilation commands we ran earlier.
The reason is so that the easiest invocation, by just calling the make command, will result in the most commonly desired output — the final executable. How does this work? However, make also works if you do not specify any target on the command line, saving you a little typing; in such a case, it defaults to the first target defined in the Makefile.
When the make command is executed, it looks for a file named makefile or Makefile in the current directory. It parses the found Makefile , and constructs a dependency tree.
Based on the desired make target specified or implied on the command-line, make checks if the dependency files of that target exist. And for filename targets — explained below if they exist, whether they are newer than the target itself, by comparing file timestamps. Before executing the action commands corresponding to the desired target, its dependencies must be met; when they are not met, the targets corresponding to the unmet dependencies are executed before the given make target, to supply the missing dependencies.
When a target is a filename, make compares the timestamps of the target file and its dependency files. It thus winds up recursively checking all the way down the dependency tree, to the source code files, to see if any of the files in the dependency tree are newer than their target filenames.
When make finally returns from its recursive checking of the tree, it completes the final comparison for the desired make target. If the dependency files are newer than the target which is usually the case , it runs the command s for the desired make target. This process is how make saves time, by executing only commands that need to be executed, based on which of the source files listed as dependencies have been updated, and have a newer timestamp than their target.
Therefore, such a target is always executed, if specified or implied on the command line. For the execution of each target, make prints the actions while executing them. Note that each of the actions shell commands written on a line are executed in a separate sub-shell. If an action changes the shell environment, such a change is restricted to the sub-shell for that action line only. In the project directory, we run the following command:. When we ran make without specifying a target on the command line, it defaulted to the first target in our Makefile — that is, the target all.
The users who voted to close gave this specific reason: Instead, describe the problem and what has been done so far to solve it. Read it linearly, and start from the beginning even if you think you already know the basics of GNU Make. What are some good resources for GNU Make? I do it all the time. You build up you analysis step by step.