Eugene P Odum; Gary W Barrett. Odum, Eugene P. (Eugene Pleasants), Add tags for "Fundamentals of ecology". by Eugene Pleasants Odum; Gary W Barrett; Gisela Yuka Shimizu; Pégasus Sistemas e Soluções. eBook: Document. Portuguese. São Paulo: Thomson. Odum considered one of his most important contribu- tions, perhaps the one for which he is best known, the book entitled Fundamentals of Ecology. Although Sir .
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Please choose whether or not you want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours. Finding libraries that hold this item Eugene P. Odum and Gary W. The Scope of Ecology. The Ecosystem. Energy in Ecological Systems.
Community Ecology. Ecosystem Development. Landscape Ecology. Regional Ecology: Major Ecosystem Types and Biomes.
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Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: Preview this item Preview this item. Fundamentals of ecology Author: Belmont, CA: Subjects Ecology -- Textbooks. Inter- action with the physical environment energy and matter at each level produces characteristicfunctional systems. A system, accordingto a standarddefrmuon, con- sists of "regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified.
Figure Ecological levels-ot-organization the interaction spectrumemphasizing of living biotic and nonliving abiotic components.
Organization Hierarchy 5. Ecologicallevels- Energetics tal of-organization hierarchy;seven Evolution Behavior de transcending processesor lunc- Development Diversity he tions are depicted as vertical componentsof elevenintegra- Regulation Integration rd tive levelsof organization afier Barrettet al. Systems containing living Giotic and nonliving abioric componentsconstirure biosrstems, d ranging from genetic systemsto ecologicalsysrems Fig.
Ecologyis largely,bur not entirely,concernedwith the systemlevelsbeyond that of the organism Figs. Likewise,cornmunity, in rhe ecologicalsense sometimes deslgnatedas "biotic community" , includes all the populations occupying a given area.
Biocoenosis andbiogeocoenosis lireralt,.. Figure 1. Failureto recognize as op- thisdifferencein t Ecosystems feedback maantaanjng pulsingstates cyberneticshas resultedin muchconfusionaboutthe bal- anceof nature. I Molecules I Atoms. A wctershedis a convenientlandscapeJevelunit for large-scalestudy and managementbecauseit usually has identifiable natural boundaries.
Biomeis a term in wide use for a largeregionalor subcontinentalsystemcharacterizedby a ma- jor vegetationt? A reglonis a large geologicalor political area that may contain more than one biome-for ex- ample, the regionsof the Midwest, the AppalachianMountains, or the PacificCoast.
The largestand most nearly self-sufficientbiological sysremis ofren designatedasrhe ecosphere, which includes all the living organismsof Earth interacting with the physicalenvironmentasa whole to maintain a self-adjusting,looselycontrolledpuls- ing state more about the concept of "pulsing state"Iater in this chapter. Hierarchicaltheory providesa convenientframework for subdividing and exam- ining complex situationsor extensivegradients,but it is more thanjust a useful rank- order classification.
More than 50 yearsago,Novikoff poirued out that rhereis both continu- ity and discontinuity in the evolurion of the universe. Developmentmay be viewed as continuous becauseit involvesnever-endingchange,but it is also drsconLtnuous becauseit passesrhrough a seriesof different levelsof orqanizarion.
Becauseeach level in the levels-of-organizationspectrum is ,. Similarly, the community cannot exist wirhour rhe cyclinq of materialsand the flow of energyin rhe ecosysrem.
This argumenris applicablet"orhe previously discussed mistaken notion that human civilization can exist separatelyfrom the natural world. It is very rmporrantto emphasizethar hierarchiesin natureare nested-Lharts, each level is made up of groups of lower-level unirs populations are composedof groups of organisms,for example. For more on hierarchrcaltheory, seeT.
Allen and Starr ,O'Neill et al. Another way to expressrhe sameconcept rs nonreducibie propeny- l- that is, a property ofthe whole not reducibleto the sum ofrhe propeniesof the parts. LE Two examples,one from the physical realm and one from rhe ecologicalrealm, te will sufficeto illusrrate emergentproperries.
When hydrogen and oxygen are com- t- bined in a certain molecular configuration, water is formed-a liquid wirh proper- ties utterly different from those of its gaseouscomponents. When certain algaeand l- coelenterateanimals evolvetogetherto produce a coral, an efficientnutrientiycling - mechanismis createdthat enablesthe comblned system to maintain a high rate of l- productivity in watercwith a very low nutrient content.
Fundamentals of ecology
Salt suggestedthat a distinction be made betweenemergempropeties, as defined previously,and collective properties, which are summationsof the behav- ior of components.
Both are propertiesof the whole, but the collectivepropertiesdo not lnvolve new or unique characteristicsresuking from the functioning of the whole lniL Birth rateis an exampleof a population level collectiveproperty, as it is merely a sum of the individual births in a designaiedtime period, expressedas a lraction or percentof the total number of individuals in the population.
New propertiesemerge becausethe componentsinteract, not becausethe basic nature of the componentsis changed. Partsare not "melted down," as it were, but integratedto produce unique new properties. Theoretically,when hierarchiesare decomposedto theirvarious levelsoIsubsysrems, the latter can still interac[ and reorganizeto achievea higher level of complexity.
Someattributes,obviously,becomemore complex and variableas one proceeds to higher levelsof organization,but often other attributesbecomelesscomplex and lessvariableas one goesfrom the smaller to the larger unit.
Becausefeedbackmech- anisms checksand balances,forcesand counterforces operatethroughout, the am- plitude ol oscillations tends to be reduced as smaller units function within larger units. Statistically,the va ance of the whole system level property is less than the sum of the varianceof the parts. For example,the rate of photosynthesisof a foresr community is lessvariablethan that of individual leavesor treeswithin the commu- nity, becausewhen one component siows down, another component may speedup to compensate.
When one considersboth the emergentpropenies and the increasing homeostasisthat develop at each level, not all component parts must be known be- fore the whole can be understood.
This is an important point, becausesome contend that it is uselessto try to work on complex populations and communitieswhen the smaller units are not yet fully understood.
Quite the contrary, one may begin study at any point in the spectrum, provided that adjacentlevels, as well as the level in question,are considered,because,as alreadynoted, some attributes are predictable from parts collectiveproperties ,but others are no[ emergentproperties. Formore on emergenlproperties,seef. AIIen and Starr ,T.
Allen and Hoekstra ,and Ahl and Allen Each biosystemlevel has emergentproperties and reduced varianceas well as a summation of attributes of its subsystemcomponents. The folk wisdom about the forest being more than just a collection of treesis, indeed, a first working principle of ecology. Although the philosophy of sciencehas alwaysbeenholistic in seekingto understandphenomenaasa whole, in recentyearsthe practiceof sciencehasbecome increasinglyreductionist in seekingto understand phenomenaby detailed study of smallerand smaller componenls.
The law of diminishing retums may very well be involved here, as excessiveellort in any one direction eventuallynecessitates taking the other or another direction. For example,researchat the cellular and mo- lecular levelshas establisheda firm basis for the future cure and prevention of can- as cersat the level of the organism. However,celllevel sciencewiil contribute very little to the well-being or survival of human civilization if we understandthe higher levels lc-t of organization so inadequatelythat we can hnd no solutions to population over- rle growth, pollution, and other forms ofsocietal and environmentaldisorders.
Both ho-: P Odum ; Barrett Ecologyseek slnthesis, not separation. The revival of the holistic disciplinesmay be due at leastpartly to citizen dissatisfac- is tion with the specializedscientistwho cannot respond to the large-scaleproblems ue that need urgent attention. Accordingly, we shall discuss he ecologicalprinciples at the ecosystemlevel, with appropiate attention to organism, te.
This is the philosophical basisfor the organizationo[ the chaptersin this book. Fortunately,in the past I0 years,technologicaladvanceshaveallowed humans to deal quantitativelywith large,complex systemssuch as ecosystemsand landscapes. Technologyis, of course,a double-edgedsword: Ex- in amplesof such transcending functions are behavior,development,diversity, ener- rle getics,evolution, integration,and regulation seeFig.
Natural selectionevolulion, for example,in- an volvesmutations and other direct geneticinteractionsat the organismlevel but indl- rect coevolutionaryand group selectionprocessesat higher levels. As noted on the right-hand side ne of Figure , there are no set-pointcontrolsabovethe organismlevel no chemostats oI or thermostatsin nature.
Accordingly, feedbackcontrol is much looser,resulting in ne pulsing rather than sieady states. The term homeorhesis, from the Greek meaning n- "maintaining the floq" has been suggestedfor this pulsing control.
Failure to recognizethis differencein cybernetics the sci- encedealingwith mechanismsof control or regulation has resultedin much confu- sion about the realitiesof the so-called"balanceof nature. Becauseecology is a broad, muLtileveldiscipline, it inrerfaceswell with lraditional disciplinesthat tend to have more narrow focus.
During the past decade,there has been a rapid rise of interfacefields of study accompaniedby new societies,journals, symposium volumes, books-and new careers. Ecological economics,one of the most important, was mentionedin the frrst sectionin this chapter.
Others that are re- ceiving a greatdeal oI attention,especiallyin resourcemanagement,are agroecology, biodiversity,conservationecology,ecologlcalengineering,ecosystemhealth, ecotox- icology,environmentalerhics,and restorationecology.
In the beginning, an interface effort enriches the disciplines being interfaced. Lines of communication are established,and the experliseo[ narrowly trained "ex- perts" in each field is expanded. However, for an interfacefield ro becomea new dis- cipline, somethingnew hasto emerge,such asa new conceptor technology.
The con- cept oInonmarket goodsand services,for example,was a new concept that emerged in ecologicaleconomics,but that inidally neither rraditional ecologistsnor econo- mists would put in their textbook Daily ; Mooney and Ehrlich Throughout lhis book, we will reler to natural capital and economiccapital. Nat- ural capital is defined as the benefits and servicessupplied to human societiesby natural ecosystems,or provided "free of cosf'by unmanagednatural systems.
These benehtsand servicesinclude purificadon oI water and air by natural processes,de- composition of wastes,maintenanceof biodiversity, control of insect pests,pollina- tion o[ crops, mitigation of floods, and provision o[ natural beauty and recreation, amongothers Daily Economic capital is defined as the goods and servicesprovided by humankind, or the human workforce, tlpically expressedas the gross national product GNP.
Gross national product is the total monetary value o[ all goods and serl,rcespro- vided in a country during one year. Natural capital is typically quantifred and ex- pressedin units of energy,whereaseconomic capital is expressedin monetary units Table Only in recent years has there been an attempt to value the world's ecosystemservicesand natural capital in moneury terms.
Costanza,d'Arge, et al. Thus it is wise to protect natural ecosystems,both ecologicallyand economically,becauseof the benehtsand servicesthey provide to human societies,aswill be illustrated in the chantersthat follow. Ifecology is to be discussedat the ecosystemlevel, for reasonsalreadyindicated,how can this complex and formidable systemlevel be dealt with?
We begn by describing simplifred versionsthat encompassonly the most important, or basic,propertiesand functions. Because,in science,simplified versionsof the real world are called models, it is appropriatenow to introduce this concept. Ultimately, however, models musr be sraristicaland mathe- matical Uormdl i[ their quantitative predictions are ro be reasonablygood. Thus, a mathematicalformulation can often be "tuned" or refined by com- puter operations to improve the "nC'to the real-world phenomenon.
Above all, d.
When a model does not t5- work-when it poorly mimics the real world-computer operadonscan often pro- vide cluesto the refinemenmor changesneeded.
Once a model proves to be a useful ed mimic, opponunities for experimentationare unlimited, becauseone can introduce o- new factorsor perturbationsand seehow they would affectthe system.
Even when a model inadequatelymimics the real world, which is often the casein its early stages rt- of development,it remainsan exceedinglyuseful teachingand researchtool if it re- bt vealskey componentsand interactionsthat merit specialattention.
Watt , for example,stated,"We do not needa rremen- rd, dous amount o[ information about a great many variablesto build revealingmathe P. Shown are d's two properties, P1and P2,that interact, I, to produce or alfect a third prope y, P], aL.
Five flow pathways,F, are shown, tar with F1 representingthe input and F6 the output for the systemas a whole. Thus, at a minimum, there are five ingredientsor componentsfor a working model of an eco- of logrcalsituation, namely, l an energ sourceor other outside forcing function, E;. P"; 3 flow pathways, Fr, F2,. Fi, showing where energyflows or material transfersconnectpropertieswith each other and with forces; 4 interaction functions, I, where forcesand propertiesinteract to modify, amplify, or control llows or createnew "emergenC'properties;and 5 feed- back loops, L.
Figure could serveas a model for the production of photochemicalsmog in the air over Los Angeles. Under the driving force of sunlight energy,E, rheseinteract to produce photochemicalsmog, P1. In this case, rn8 the interaction function, l, is a slrrergisticor augmentativeone, in that P3is a more.
P2might repre- senta herbivorousanimal that eatsplants, and P: Compartment diagramshowingthefjvebasjccomponents of primaryInterestrn modelingecological systems. Or I cou]d be a seasonaiswitchi[ pr feedson plants during one part of the yearancLon animalsduring anorherseason. Or I could be a thresholdswitch il P, greatlyprelcrsanimalfood and switchesto plantsonly when P, is rcducedto a low level.
Figure l-6 is a simplilieddiagramoIa systemth fearures a feedbackloop in which "downstream,, ourput,or so;e part o[ ii. Compartmentmodelwith afeedbackorcon- trol loop that transformsa linear system into a partiallycycli- cal one. Interactionof positive and negativefeedbacksin the relation- ships of atmosphericCOr, climate warming,soilrespiration, andcarbonse' questration modifiedafter Luo et al.
By and large, natural ecosystemshave a circular or loop design mther than a linear structure. Feedbackand cybernetics,the scienceof: An increase let in CO2 has a positive greenhouseeffect on global warming and on plant growth. This acclimation results in a negativefeedbackon la carbon sequestrationin the soil, thus reducing emissionof CO2 to the atmosphere, c'n accordingto a study by Luo et al.
Odum energylanguage H. P Odum ; H. Odum are depicted as used in this book. Also, in this diagram estimatesof the amount of energ'yflow through the units are shown as indicators of the relativeim- portanceof unit functions. I the spaceto be considered how the system is bounded ; 2 the subsystems compo- nents judged to be important in overall function; and 3 the lime interval to be con- sidered. Once an ecosystem,ecological situation, or problem has been properly dehnedand bounded, a testablehlpothesis or serieso[ hlpotheses is developedthat can be rejectedor accepted,at leasttentatively,pending further expedmenLationor analysis.
For more on ecologicalmodeling, seePattenand Jorgensen , H. Odum , and Gundersonand Holling Energy circuit Consumer A pathwayor Usesproducer energy flowof energy for self-maintenance. Heatsink Degradedenergy afterusein work Twoor moreflows of energyto producea high-qualityenergy.