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ukraine-europe.info for downloading it from there; the download is very cheap Biology Quest general knowledge questions and. ALLAN PEASE QUESTIONS ARE THE ANSWERS LUKE AND MIA Luke was a builder who was determined to make his business . Download. Preview my Perfect Interview Answers ebook! Download this book on Amazon for Free! This book will get you ready for the toughest interview questions.
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If none of that works, n ot to worry. You don't need a PayPal account. You can also pay with several major credit cards at the PayPal payment screen. A word of warning: Many people have become aware of mirroring strategies since I wrote the book Body Language and over million people have watched the television series and training videos that followed.
Women use more facial expression and men rely more on body movements and gestures. Typically, a woman will use an average of six facial expressions in a ten-second listening period to reflect and feed back the speaker's emotions. Her face will mirror the emotions being expressed by the speaker. To someone watching, it can look as if the events being discussed are happening to both women.
Here is a typical ten-second sequence of a woman showing she is listening: A woman reads the meaning of what is being said through the speaker's voice tone and body language and registers her understanding by reflecting those emotions.
This is exactly what a man needs to do to capture a woman's attention and to keep her listening. Most men are daunted by the prospect of using facial feedback while listening, but it pays big dividends for those who become good at it. Some men say, "She'll think I'm weird!
Because of the evolutionary need to withhold emotion in public to stave off possible attack, most men look like they're statues when they listen. Here is the same range of facial expressions used by a typical man in a ten-second listening period: This is a light-hearted look at the male listening approach, but recognising the truth in the humour gives it edge. The emotionless mask that men put on while listening allows them to feel in control of the situation, but does not mean they don't experience emotions.
Brain scans reveal that men feel emotion as strongly as women do, but avoid showing it in public. The key to mirroring a man's behaviour is in understanding that he uses his body to signal his attitudes - not his face.
Most women find it difficult to mirror an expressionless man but it gets results. If you're a woman, it means you need to reduce your facial expressions so that you don't appear overwhelming or intimidating. Most importantly, don't mirror what you think he might be feeling. That can be disastrous if you've got it wrong. You may be described as 'dizzy' or 'scatterbrained'. Women who use a serious face when listening are described by men as more intelligent, astute and sensible.
This is known as 'pacing' and it can almost seem as if the two people are singing in tune. You will often see a speaker beating time with his hands while the listener matches the rhythm with head nods.
As a relationship grows over time the mirroring of the main body language positions becomes less as each person begins to anticipate the other's attitudes. Pacing with the other person then becomes the main medium for maintaining rapport. Never speak at a faster rate than the other person does. Studies reveal that others say they feel 'pressured' when someone speaks faster than they do.
A person's speed of speech shows the rate at which their brain can consciously analyse information.
Speak at the same rate or slightly slower than the other person and mirror their inflection and intonation.
Pacing is critical when making appointments by telephone because the voice is your only medium, so you need to practise. You'll never get a second chance to make a first impression. You probably heard your grandmother tell you this. Or that they will make at least 25 judgements about you including your age, income, education, authority, friendliness and trustworthiness.
They'll even decide how much money they'd lend you before they'd insist on a guarantee. There are, fortunately, four areas over which you can have some control. These are your handshake, smile, dress and personal space. When used correctly, palm power invests its user with a degree of authority and silent command.
There are three main palm gestures: The differences in power of each position are shown in this example. Let's say that you ask someone to move to another location in the room. We'll assume you use the same tone of voice, the same words and facial expressions and change only the position of your palm. The Palm-Up Illustration A is a non-threatening gesture and the person being asked to move will not feel threatened by the request. It's a gesture used since cavemen to show that the person is not holding any weapons.
When your palm is turned to face downwards Illustration B , you communicate immediate authority. The person you have directed will feel that he has been given an order and may feel antagonistic towards you - especially if he doesn't feel you have the right to be so assertive. If you make a presentation and continually use the Palm-Down position you're likely to suffer rejection from your audience. In Illustration C the pointed finger becomes a symbolic club with which the speaker figuratively beats his listener into submission.
The PointedFinger is one of the most irritating gestures that a speaker can use, particularly when it beats time with the speaker's words. Research into both the Palm-Down and PointedFinger gestures show that listeners rate speakers who use these gestures as more aggressive, forceful, smug or arrogant and they can recall less of what the speakers said. This is because the listener was judging the speaker's attitude and not listening to the information.
If you are a habitual finger-pointer, try practicing the Palm-Up and Palm-Down positions and you'll find that a combination of these positions can create a more relaxed atmosphere and you'll have a more positive effect on your audience. Whenever cavemen met, they would hold their arms out with their palms up to show that no weapons were being held or concealed.
This Palmsin-Air gesture became modified over the centuries and such gestures as the Single-Palm. The modern form of this ancient greeting ritual is the interlocking and shaking of the palms which, in most non-Asian countries, is performed both on initial greeting and on departure.
The hands are normally pumped three to seven times. Considering what has already been said about the impact of a command given with the Palm-Up and Palm-Down positions, let's explore the relevance of these two positions in handshaking.
Assume that you have just greeted a new person with a handshake. One of three basic attitudes will be transmitted I'd better be cautious'. He will do what I want. I like this person. We'll get on well together'. These attitudes are transmitted unconsciously. Dominance is communicated when you turn your hand dark sleeve so that your palm faces down in the handshake Illustration 1.
Your palm need not be facing the floor directly, but is facing downwards in relation to the other person's palm and this says you want to take the control. Studies of fifty-four successful senior management people revealed not only did forty-two initiate the handshake, but they also used dominant hand shake control.
This handshake style is not good for creating rapport, as it is intimidat ing to most people. It's used mainly by men. Just as dogs show submission by rolling on their backs and exposing their throat to an aggressor, we humans use the Palm-Up gesture to show submission to others. The reverse of the Dominant Handshake is to offer your hand with your palm facing up Illustration 2. This is particularly effective when you want to give the other person control or allow him to feel he is in control.
It can also say you can be intimidated. This makes everyone feel comfortable and is non-threatening. Second, give the same grip pressure that you receive. This can mean that if, for example, you're being introduced to a group of 10 people, you would probably vary the pressure several times and make several adjustments of the angle of the hands.
With this handshake style there are no winners or losers and no one feels intimidated. It makes it easier for everyone to feel open to new ideas and less judgemental of each other. While its objective may be to convey feelings of welcome, warmth and trust, it has the complete opposite effect on the receiver. They perceive the giver to be insincere, less trustworthy or to have ulterior motives. Always stick to the Single-Handed Handshake.
Practice holding folders, papers, brief cases, purses and drinks in your left hand. We greet each other using our right hand to shake hands and most of us use our right hand to open doors, move a chair or wave goodbye. Even if you do it successfully and don't spill it over everyone's shoes, the new person receives your cold, wet hand and that becomes their first impression of you - cold, damp and soggy. If you're holding documents in your right hand and you switch hands to open a door, move a chair or respond to a handshake, you might drop the documents and look like a fumbling fool.
Smiling has its origin as an appeasement gesture and is also used by monkeys and chimps to show they are non-threatening. Our research into this gesture shows that the more frequently you use it, the closer others are likely to stand to you, the mo re eye contact they will give you, the more likely they will be to touch you and the longer they want to stay with you.
For example, people raised in most middleclass English-speaking cities have a Personal Space need of about 46cm 18inches and this is why, in non-threatening or social situations, they stand about 1 metre apart illustration 1. In many parts of Europe, the Mediterranean and South America, the Personal Space need of the locals can be as little as 30cm 12 inches.
This means they will be standing too close to most Westerners and may be perceived as 'pushy'. In Illustration 2, if both people were from the Mediterranean region they would probably feel comfortable with each other at this distance.
But if one was from London and the other from Rome the Londoner would probably think intimate or agressive advances were being made. They're telling you this is the amount of space they need for comfort. The strategies in these cases are simple - mirror the frequency of touch you receive. If the person is, for example, Italian or French and seems to be constantly touching you, return their touch or they may think you don't like them. While we won't be analysing each component of clothing in this chapter, I will give you the formula for appropriate dress.
Women are likely to get it wrong more often than men because women have access to a wider range of styles, colours and designs then men.
However, while most men have less choices and less clothes , most do not have specific locations in the brain to allow them to correctly match patterns and designs and one in eight men is colour blind to red, blue or green. The secret to appropriate business dress is in the answer to this question - How does your prospect expect you to be dressed?
For you to appear credible, likeable, authoritative, knowledgable, successful and approachable, how would you be dressed in their opinion?
What suit, shirt, blouse, tie, skirt, shoes, watch, make-up and hairstyle would you be wearing? In their opinion - not yours. Remember, your prospect's opinion is the important one here so dress for him or her. This will vary from region to region and dress styles are affected by climate, but there is a standard to which a successful person would be dressed in your region. If you lined up the most successful world leaders and business people, you'd notice that there would be a standard to which they would be dressed.
And that's the safest standard to follow. Don't handicap yourself by dressing to your own tastes or comfort level. Dress for your prospect's expectations. Almost everyone is now aware that it's possible to read someone's attitude through his or her behaviour.
When I wrote Body Language in , I had no idea it would have the impact on the world that it has had or that it would sell over 4 million copies in 33 languages. The way you say things is 3 times more important than the words you use. Reading Clusters Like any language, body language consists of words, sentences, phrases and punctuation. Each gesture is like a single word and may have several different meanings. It is only when you put the word into a sentence with other words that you can fully understand its meaning.
Gestures come in sentences called 'clusters'. Never try to interpret a single gesture in isolation. For examp le, scratching the head can mean a number of things - dandruff, fleas, sweating, uncertainty, forgetfulness, or lying, depending on the other gestures that occur at the same time. For a correct reading always look for gesture clusters in groups of at least three. Illustration I shows a typical Critical Evaluation cluster - arm across the body, hand to face, thumb supporting the chin, legs crossed and furrowed eyebrows.
In this section of the book we will be analysing gestures individually but this is not how they normally occur - they come in clusters. Rule 2. Consider the Context Gesture clusters should be evaluated in the context in which they occur. If, for example, someone was sitting at a bus terminal with their arms and legs tightly crossed and chin down and it was a cold day, it would most likely mean that he or she was cold, not defensive Illustration 2. If, however, the person used the same gestures while you were sitting across a table from him trying to sell an idea, the gestures could be correctly interpreted as meaning the person was probably negative or defensive about the situation.
Rule 3. Acknowledge Cultural Differences A gesture which means one thing in one country can have a dramatically different meaning in another country. For example, the 'ring' gesture shown in illustration 3 is most commonly recognised in Western countries as meaning 'OK' or 'good.
The 'OK' meaning is now common in all countries which have Western television programs and, although its meaning is fast spreading across the rest of the world, it has other origins and meanings in other places.
Most basic body language gestures are the same everywhere. When people are happy they smile, when they are sad or angry they frown or scowl.
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Nodding the head is almost universally used to indicate 'yes' or Smiling is probably inborn as people born with visual impairments also use it even though they may have never actually seen it. In this chapter I'll present a simple 'dictionary' of body language gestures that are common to most cultures and these are the things you're most likely to see during face-to-face presentations.
Women at social events everywhere say to men, "Didn't you see the look I was giving you! It should have been obvious to you that I wanted to leave the party! She's picked up that the person's body language is out of sync with the group opinion and is showing the disagreement. How women can 'see' disagreement, anger, deceit or hurt has always been a source of amazement to most men. It's because most mens' brains are simply not equipped to read the fine detail of body language like a woman's brain.
This is why attempting to lie to a woman in a face-to-face encounter is unwise - a phone call would be safer! A good reading ground is anywhere that people meet and interact. An airport is a particularly good place for observing the entire spectrum of human gestures because people openly express eagerness, anger, sorrow, happiness, impatience and many other emotions through their gestures.
Social functions, business meetings and parties are fertile fields for study and watching television also offers an excellent way to learn.
Turn down the sound and try to understand what is happening by watching only the picture. By turning the sound up every few minutes, you'll be able to check how accurate your non-verbal readings are and before long it will be possible to watch an entire program without any sound and understand what is happening - just as people who are hearing impaired do.
Use a video camera to film yourself giving a presentation and replay it with the sound off and have your friends and associates evaluate your performance. Crossing the arms in front of the body shows a detached, closed attitude.
It's almost impossible to re-learn crossing the opposite way. Its purpose appears to be to protect the heart and lungs from attack and most primates also use it for that reason. When interviewed about the presenter's performance, the arm-crossers used shorter sentences, gave less eye-contact, sat back more often and were more critical of the presenter's performance than were the arms -uncrossed listeners.
Arm-Crossing can also be seen in several subtle forms including the Half-Arm-Cross Illustration 4 ; Holding-Hands-with-Yourself Illustration 5 which seems to be a relic from when your parent held your hand if you were nervous and Holding-an- Object with-Both-Hands Illustration 6. The purpose of holding a purse, glass or folder with two hands is to achieve a sense of security by having the arms in front of the body. Fiddling with a ring, watch or cufflink on the opposite hand achieves the same result.
Illustration 7 shows the man on the right using a cluster of gestures in a correct context. He is using the Arms -Crossed position, his legs are spread male aggression , one eyebrow raised critical , tightlipped smile withholding , and body facing away disinterested. He is feeling excluded by the other two people who are building a rapport with each other by mirroring. There is a good chance he will non-verbally signal this by crossing his arms on his chest.
We also know from research that in an arms-crossed position a person's retention of what is said diminishes by about 40 per cent and his attitude becomes more critical. Try this simple experiment. Sit back and tightly cross your arms on your chest. How do you feel? Studies show that if you cross your arms for any reason you will begin experiencing the negative effects of this gesture. It's a cause and effect situation. Habitual armcrossers always claim they feel 'comfortable' because the arm-crossing gesture will feel comfortable when they feel the corresponding emotions.
Even if you don't believe that arm crossing is a negative signal, your listener will unconsciously read you as negative or unapproachable. That's why it is hard to convince a group of people in a cold room. The ideal room temperature for presenting should be 21 C. Some useful strategies 1. Eliminate arm crossing from your repertoire. Your listeners will remember less of what you say, are more critical of your performance and will like you less. Practice open body language. Where possible, give your audience chairs with arms.
This allows them to keep their arms uncrossed and want to participate more. Avoid having armless chairs too close together as it encourages participants to cross their arms to avoid touching the person beside them. If your audience sit with their arms crossed you can break the position by asking them to raise their hands to answer questions, give them physical involvement exercises to do, hand out pens and paper for note-taking or serve them hot drinks. Westerners and most Europeans increase their hand to-face contact when not telling the truth.
This is not the case with Asian people who avoid head touching for religious reasons but increase foot movements when lying. Covering the mouth when lying is cornmonly seen in children and can still be seen in adults as in Illustration 8. Lying increases nose sensitivity and may result in just a Nose Touch Illustration 9.
Covering the eyes with the hands stops us from looking at what we don't like seeing or don't believe and is the origin of the Eye Rub Gesture Illustration Tugging or Rubbing the Ear Illustration 11 or Scratching the side of the Neck Illustration 12 are also indicators that the person is uncertain or disbelieving about what is being said.
The Head-Tilt: We tilt our head when we are interested in what we see or hear.
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If your prospect is tilting, keep presenting. If his head straightens, wobbles or is dropped onto his chest, get involvement or change direction. This shows a positive evaluation of your presentation. The hand rests on the cheek but does not support the head.
The finger usually touches the temple. If the head begins to be supported by the hand, interest is waning. Sucking Glasses: A person may also suck a pen, pencil or even their own lips. It can also be used to stall making a decision because the person feels justified in not answering while their mouth is otherwise occupied.
Leaning In: We move closer to people and things we find interesting or attractive. This is not to be confused with the Starter's Position which looks similar but both hands are on the knees and the person looks like they are about to start a race, probably towards the door.
The Steeple: This gesture can be read as a solitary gesture and it displays a cool, confident attitude. The question is, however, confident about what? Confident about going along with you? Confident about their own knowledge of the subject? Have they heard it all before?
The context under which it is used will give you the correct answer. Protruding Thumbs: Thumbs can protrude from coat pockets, trouser pockets or on lapels and braces. Protruding Thumbs signal a superior attitude - confident and cool, similar to that of the Steeple gesture. It is unwise to use this gesture in front of your audience as it can also be read as a smug or arrogant attitude. Used almost exclusively by men it communicates an attitude of, "I know all about this - I've got all the answers.
Critical Evaluation: This gesture is widely used and reveals critical thoughts by the listener. The index finger points directly up the cheek, the thumb supports the chin and the middle finger is beside or over the mouth. A question like, "What's your opinion? Imaginary-lint-picking reveals disapproval about what is being said. The person looks away while picking the imaginary lint or fluff.
An approach such as "I can see you have a question" could work well with this person. The Collar Pull: When someone is silently angry, upset or being deceitful it causes a tingling sensation in the neck which gives the person the urge to pull the collar away from the neck. A question like "How do you feel about this? This expression perfectly describes what is happening here. Mounting tension or frustration causes the person to rub or slap the back of the neck to satisfy the tingling sensation that occurs when someone or something gives you a literal 'pain in the neck'.
This is caused by the movement of the tiny erecta pillae muscles in the neck. Slow Blinking: This annoying gesture is used by a person who feels he is better, wiser, richer or smarter than you are and it is often accompanied with the raising up on the soles of the feet to gain height.
The brain shuts out what it doesn't want to see by closing the eyes. This person may look upon you with contempt. This has a combination of meanings - first, that the person feels relaxed and self-confident, particularly if it's not his chair; second, it's a form of territoriality because he stakes his claim with the leg over the chair. The overall attitude is that of relaxed indifference. This is mainly a male gesture which sends a message of dominance or superiority. The back of the chair gives protection against a possible 'attack' and the Legs Spread is a classic male domination toy.
Never argue with the person who takes this position. Instead, get involvement or ask them to turn the chair around the right way. The speed of the handrub shows the person's likely emotions. Fast hand rubbing is done by a person who is feeling excited about the outcome for everyone concerned. Slow hand rubbing is used when the person expects to personally receive benefits or make money from the discussion.
A Typical Cluster In This scene, the woman on the right has assumed the classic Critical Evaluation Cluster and the man on the left is using Open-Palms and leaning forward to try to draw her out. The man in the center is using the Steeple and an aggressive leg position which reflects his confident, self-assured attitude. Always remember the Number One rule of Body Language - never interpret gestures in isolation, always look for clusters. Be sure to consider the context of all signals and acknowledge cultural differences.
Being able to read Body Language means being able to see the obvious in everyday situations. Now look at the next illustration. What do you see? You'll never hear a person described as 'a natural engineer' or 'a natural pharmacist' or 'a born doctor'. We know that these occupations are sciences. A science is a skill or technique achieved by systematic study based on observation, experiment and measurement.
Top level networkers are not 'natural' or 'born'. Top level networking is a science - a learnable art - the same as any of the sciences.
This book gives you some powerful techniques and shows you how to use them, how to measure and improve your progress and what to observe when dealing with people.
The science of One of the greatest challenges networkers face on their journey to success is over- sensitivity to a negative response.
When you use the techniques set out in this book, you will understand how every 'No' is, in fact, a positive step towards achieving your goals. Keeping your averages will prove this to you constantly. This book discloses the secrets of 'how to' which for many, have been their biggest stumbling blocks. Now, it's up to you. The Network Marketing business has evolved virtually overnight without fanfare or advertising and could eventually become the largest business system of them all.
Its success relies on the referral-based distribution system and is driven almost entirely by the enthusiasm of its members. It is one of the most dynamic opportunities ever created by the mind of man.
Zellig Harris Harris Though in generative grammar interrogatives are not derived from the corresponding declaratives, the semantic interpretation of questions is akin to the syntactic source of questions posited by Harris.
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