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read Elliott Wave Principle by A.J. Frost and Robert Prechter, or take the free . pattern of five waves up and three waves down to form a complete cycle of eight. You may freely distribute this eBook, provided all content including text, author . gives you access to a free Elliott Wave basics tutorial (50 pages) which covers all the in a declining market will take the form of 5 waves down and 3 waves up. ukraine-europe.info You may link to that download resource directly from your website / blog / lens, etc. Feel free to give this e-book to.

Now in its 40th year, Elliott Wave Principle is one of the most popular market analysis books ever published. Elliott wave analysis is a detailed description of how markets behave -- every hour of every day. To know the market's wave pattern is to know its personality Plus, we'll keep you updated with new resources, and exclusive invitations. Login Here. Only have a few minutes each day to go on this journey?

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Benzinga Partners. Images provided by Deposit Photos. Benzinga - Feed Your Mind try pro. A running triangle , in contrast, is much more common see next section. A triangle appears to reflect a balance of forces, causing a sideways movement that is usually associated with decreasing volume and volatility. The triangle pattern contains five overlapping waves that subdivide and are labeled A-B-C-D-E.

A triangle is delineated by connecting the termination points of waves A and C, and B and D. Wave E can undershoot or overshoot the A-C line, and in fact, our experience tells us that it happens more often than not.

There are three varieties of triangles: Elliott contended that the horizontal line of a barrier triangle could occur on either side of the triangle, but such is not the case; it always occurs on the side that the next wave will exceed. Figure depicts contracting and barrier triangles as taking place entirely within the area of preceding price action, which may be termed a regular r triangle.

Yet, it is extremely common for wave B of a contracting triangle to exceed the start of wave A in what may be termed a running triangle, as shown in Figure There are several real life examples of triangles in the charts in this book see Figures , , , , and As you will notice, most of the subwaves in a triangle are zigzags, but sometimes one of the subwaves usually wave C is more complex than the others and can take the shape of a multiple zigzag.

In rare cases, one of the sub-waves usually wave E is itself a triangle, so that the entire pattern protracts into nine waves. Thus, triangles, like zigzags, occasionally display a development that is analogous to an extension. One example occurred in silver from through see Figure A triangle always occurs in a position prior to the final actionary wave in the pattern of one larger degree, i.

A triangle may also occur as the final actionary pattern in a corrective combination, as discussed in the next section, although even then it usually precedes the final actionary wave in the pattern of one larger degree than the corrective combination. Although upon extremely rare occasions a second wave in an impulse appears to take the form of a triangle, it is usually due to the fact that a triangle is part of the correction, which is in fact a double three for example, see Figure In the stock market, when a triangle occurs in the fourth wave position, wave five is sometimes swift and travels approximately the distance of the widest part of the triangle.

Elliott used the word "thrust" in referring to this swift, short motive wave following a triangle. The thrust is usually an impulse but can be an ending diagonal. In powerful markets, there is no thrust, but instead a prolonged fifth wave. So if a fifth wave following a triangle pushes past a normal thrust movement, it is signaling a likely protracted wave. Post-triangle advancing impulses in commodities at degrees above Intermediate are usually the longest wave in the sequence, as explained in Chapter 6.

Many analysts are fooled into labeling a completed triangle way too early. Triangles take time and go sideways. If you examine Figure closely, you will see that one could have jumped the gun in the middle of wave b, pronouncing the end of five contracting waves. But the boundary lines of triangles almost never collapse so quickly. Subwave C is typically a complex wave, though wave B or D can fulfill that role. Give triangles time to develop. On the basis of our experience with triangles, as the examples in Figures and later in and illustrate, we propose that often the time at which the boundary lines of a contracting triangle reach an apex coincides with a turning point in the market.

Perhaps the frequency of this occurrence would justify its inclusion among the guidelines associated with the Wave Principle. Elliott called a sideways combination of two corrective patterns a "double three" and three patterns a "triple three.

As with double and triple zigzags, the simple corrective pattern components are labeled W, Y and Z. Each reactionary wave, labeled X, can take the shape of any corrective pattern but is most commonly a zigzag. As with multiple zigzags, three patterns appear to be the limit, and even those are rare compared to the more common double three. Combinations of threes were labeled differently by Elliott at different times, although the illustrative pattern always took the shape of two or three juxtaposed flats, as shown in Figures and However, the component patterns more commonly alternate in form.

For example, a flat followed by a triangle is a more typical type of double three which we now know as of ; see Appendix , as illustrated in Figure A flat followed by a zigzag is another example, as shown in Figure Naturally, since the figures in this section depict corrections in bull markets, they need only be inverted to observe them as upward corrections in bear markets. For the most part, a combination is horizontal in character. Elliott indicated that the entire formation could slant against the larger trend, although we have never found this to be the case.

One reason is that there never appears to be more than one zigzag in a combination. Neither is there more than one triangle. Recall that triangles occurring alone precede the final movement of a larger trend. Combinations appear to recognize this character and sport triangles only as the final wave in a double or triple three. But double and triple threes are different from double and triple zigzags not only in their angle but in their goal.

In a double or triple zigzag, the first zigzag is rarely large enough to constitute an adequate price correction of the preceding wave. The doubling or tripling of the initial form is usually necessary to create an adequately sized price retracement. In a combination, however, the first simple pattern often constitutes an adequate price correction. The doubling or tripling appears to occur mainly to extend the duration of the corrective process after price targets have been substantially met.

Sometimes additional time is needed to reach a channel line or achieve a stronger kinship with the other correction in an impulse. As the consolidation continues, the attendant psychology and fundamentals extend their trends accordingly. Notice that while an impulse wave has a total count of 5, with extensions leading to 9 or 13 waves, and so on, a corrective wave has a count of 3, with combinations leading to 7 or 11 waves, and so on.

The triangle appears to be an exception, although it can be counted as one would a triple three, totaling 11 waves. Thus, if an internal count is unclear, you can sometimes reach a reasonable conclusion merely by counting waves. A count of 9, 13 or 17 with few overlaps, for instance, is likely motive, while a count of 7, 11 or 15 with numerous overlaps is likely corrective.

The main exceptions are diagonals of both types, which are hybrids of motive and corrective forces. In such cases, the end of the pattern is called the "orthodox" top or bottom in order to differentiate it from the actual price high or low that occurs intra-pattern or after the end of the pattern. For example, in Figure , the end of wave 5 is the orthodox top despite the fact that wave 3 registered a higher price.

In Figure , the end of wave 5 is the orthodox bottom. In Figures and , the starting point of wave A is the orthodox top of the preceding bull market despite the higher high of wave B. In Figures and , the start of wave A is the orthodox bottom.

In Figure , the end of wave Y is the orthodox bottom of the bear market even though the price low occurs at the end of wave W. This concept is important primarily because a successful analysis always depends upon a proper labeling of the patterns.

Assuming falsely that a particular price extreme is the correct starting point for wave labeling can throw analysis off for some time, while being aware of the requirements of wave form will keep you on track. Further, when applying the forecasting concepts that will be introduced in Chapter 4, the length and duration of a wave are typically determined by measuring from and projecting orthodox ending points. Earlier in this chapter, we described the two functions waves may perform action and reaction , as well as the two modes of structural development motive and corrective that they undergo.

Now that we have reviewed all types of waves, we can summarize their labels as follows:. As stated earlier, all reactionary waves develop in corrective mode, and most actionary waves develop in motive mode. The preceding sections have described which actionary waves develop in corrective mode.

They are:. Because the waves listed above are actionary in relative direction yet develop in corrective mode, we term them "actionary corrective" waves. Though action in five waves is followed by reaction in three waves at all degrees of trend regardless of direction , progress begins with an actionary impulse, which by convention is graphed in the upward direction. Since all such graphs depict ratios, they could be depicted in the downward direction.

Instead of dollars per share, for instance, one could plot shares per dollar.

Progress is carried out by the development of impulse waves of ever larger degree. Motive waves downward are merely parts of corrections and therefore are not synonymous with progress. Similarly, corrective waves upward are still corrective and thus ultimately do not achieve progress. Therefore, three additional terms are required to denote the purpose of a wave, to differentiate conveniently among waves that result in progress and those that do not.

Any motive wave upward that is not within a corrective wave of any larger degree will be termed a progressive wave. It must be labeled 1, 3 or 5. Any declining wave, regardless of mode, will be termed a regressive wave. Finally, an upward wave, regardless of mode, that occurs within a corrective wave of any larger degree will be termed a progressive wave. Both regressive and proregressive waves are part or all of corrections. Only a progressive wave is independent of countertrend forces.

The reader may recognize that the commonly used term "bull market" would apply to a progressive wave, the term "bear market" would apply to a regressive wave, and the term "bear market rally" would apply to a proregressive wave. However, conventional definitions of terms such as "bull market," "bear market," "primary," "intermediate," "minor," "rally," "pullback" and "correction" attempt to include a quantitative element and are thus rendered useless because they are arbitrary.

By this definition, a decline of Such terms are of questionable value. Although a whole list of quantitative terms could be developed cub, mama bear, papa bear and grizzly, for instance , they cannot improve upon the simple use of a percentage. In contrast, Elliott wave terms are properly definitive because they are qualitative, i. Thus, there are differing degrees of progressive, regressive and proregressive waves under the Wave Principle.

A Supercycle B wave in a Grand Supercycle correction would be of sufficient amplitude and duration that it would be popularly identified as a "bull market. There are two classes of waves, which differ in fundamental importance. Waves denoted by numbers we term cardinal waves because they compose the essential wave form, the five-wave impulse, as shown in Figure The market can always be identified as being in a cardinal wave at the largest degree.

Waves denoted by letters we term consonant or subcardinal waves because they serve only as components of cardinal waves 2 and 4 and may not serve in any other capacity. A motive wave is composed, at one lesser degree, of cardinal waves, and a corrective wave is composed, at one lesser degree, of consonant waves.

Our selection of these terms is due to their excellent double meanings. The Merriam-Webster Unabridged Dictionary. There is little practical use for these terms, which is why this explanation has been relegated to the end of the chapter. However, they are useful in philosophical and theoretic discussions and so are presented to anchor the terminology.

In The Wave Principle and elsewhere, Elliott discussed what he called an "irregular top," an idea he developed with a great deal of specificity. He said that if an extended fifth wave terminates a fifth wave of one higher degree, the ensuing bear market will either begin with or be an expanded flat in which wave A is extremely we would say impossibly small relative to the size of wave C see Figure Wave B to a new high is the irregular top, "irregular" because it occurs after the end of the fifth wave.

Elliott contended further that occurrences of irregular tops alternate with those of regular tops. His formulation is inaccurate, however, and complicates the description of phenomena that we describe accurately in the discussion of the behavior following fifth wave extensions and under "Depth of Corrective Waves" in Chapter 2. The question is, how did Elliott end up with two extra waves that he had to explain away?

The answer is that he was powerfully predisposed to marking a fifth wave extension when in fact the third wave had extended. Two impressive Primary degree fifth wave extensions occurred in the s and s, engendering that predisposition. In order to turn an extended third into an extended fifth, Elliott invented an A-B-C correction called an "irregular type 2.

He often asserted this labeling in the wave 2 position. These labels then left him with two extra waves at the peak. Thus, these two erroneous concepts were born of the same tendency.

In fact, one requires the other. As you can see by the count illustrated in Figure , the a-b-c "irregular type 2" in the wave 2 position necessitates the "irregular top" labeling at the peak. In fact, there is nothing irregular about the wave structure except its false labeling! Elliott also contended that every fifth wave extension is "doubly retraced," i. Such movement happens naturally due to the guideline that corrections usually bottom in the area of the previous fourth wave see Chapter 2 ; the "second retracement" is the next impulse wave.

The term might apply reasonably well to waves A and B of an expanded flat following an extension, as per the discussion in Chapter 2 under "Behavior Following Fifth Wave Extensions. In Nature's Law , Elliott referred to a shape called a "half moon. This shape is found more often when declining prices are plotted on semilog scale and when advancing prices in a multi-year trend are plotted on arithmetic scale.

The fact is that Elliott invented this pattern during a period in which he was trying to force his Principle into the year triangle concept, which no interpreter today accepts as valid under the rules of the Wave Principle. Indeed, it is clear that such a pattern, if it existed, would have the effect of invalidating the Wave Principle.

The authors have never seen an "A-B base," and in fact it cannot exist. As far as we know, this chapter lists all wave formations that can occur in the price movement of the broad stock market averages. Under the Wave Principle, no other formations than those listed here will occur. The authors can find no examples of waves above Minor degree that we cannot count satisfactorily by the Elliott method.

The hourly readings are a nearly perfectly matched filter for detailing waves of Subminuette degree. Elliott waves of much smaller degree than Subminuette are revealed by computer generated charts of minute-by-minute transactions.

Even the few data points transactions per unit of time at this low a degree are often enough to reflect the Wave Principle accurately by recording the rapid shifts in psychology occurring in the "pits" and on the exchange floor.

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All rules and guidelines of the Wave Principle fundamentally apply to actual market mood, not its recording per se or lack thereof. Its clear manifestation requires free market pricing. When prices are fixed by government edict, such as those for gold and silver for half of the twentieth century, waves restricted by the edict are not allowed to register.

When the available price record differs from what might have existed in a free market, rules and guidelines must be considered in that light. In the long run, of course, markets always win out over edicts, and edict enforcement is only possible if the mood of the market allows it. All rules and guidelines presented in this book presume that your price record is accurate.

Now that we have presented the rules and rudiments of wave formation, we can move on to some of the guidelines for successful analysis using the Wave Principle. The guidelines presented throughout this chapter are discussed and illustrated in the context of a bull market. Except where specifically excluded, they apply equally in bear markets, in which context the illustrations and implications would be inverted.

The guideline of alternation is very broad in its application and warns the analyst always to expect a difference in the next expression of a similar wave. Hamilton Bolton said,. Although alternation does not say precisely what is going to happen, it gives valuable notice of what not to expect and is therefore useful to keep in mind when analyzing wave formations and assessing future probabilities.

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It primarily instructs the analyst not to assume, as most people tend to do, that because the last market cycle behaved in a certain manner, this one is sure to be the same. As "contrarians" never cease to point out, the day that most investors "catch on" to an apparent habit of the market is the day it will change to one completely different.

However, Elliott went further in stating that, in fact, alternation was virtually a law of markets.

If wave two of an impulse is a sharp correction, expect wave four to be a sideways correction, and vice versa. Figure shows the most characteristic breakdowns of an impulse wave, either up or down, as suggested by the guideline of alternation. Sharp corrections never include a new price extreme, i. They are almost always zigzags single, double or triple ; occasionally they are double threes that begin with a zigzag.

Sideways corrections include flats, triangles, and double and triple corrections. They usually include a new price extreme, i. In rare cases, a regular triangle one that does not include a new price extreme in the fourth wave position will take the place of a sharp correction and alternate with another type of sideways pattern in the second wave position.

The idea of alternation within an impulse can be summarized by saying that one of the two corrective processes will contain a move back to or beyond the end of the preceding impulse, and the other will not.

A diagonal does not display alternation between subwaves 2 and 4. Typically both corrections are zigzags. An extension is an expression of alternation, as the motive waves alternate their lengths. Typically the first is short, the third is extended, and the fifth is short again.

An extension, which normally occurs as wave 3, sometimes occurs as wave 1 or 5, another manifestation of alternation. If a correction begins with a flat a-b-c construction for wave A, expect a zigzag a-b-c formation for wave B, and vice versa see Figures and Quite often, when a large correction begins with a simple a-b-c zigzag for wave A, wave B will stretch out into a more intricately subdivided a-b-c zigzag to achieve a type of alternation, as in Figure Sometimes wave C will be yet more complex, as in Figure The reverse order of complexity is somewhat less common.

An example of its occurrence can be found in wave 4 in Figure No market approach other than the Wave Principle gives a satisfactory answer to the question, "How far down can a bear market be expected to go? Our analysis of the period from to uses the chart of stock prices adjusted to constant dollars developed by Gertrude Shirk and presented in the January issue of Cycles magazine.

Here we find that the Supercycle low bottomed within the area of the previous fourth wave of Cycle degree, an expanding triangle spanning the period between and In this case, the Cycle degree bear market from to was a zigzag that terminated within the area of the fourth Primary wave of the bull market from to This narrow miss nevertheless illustrates why this guideline is not a rule.

The preceding strong third wave extension and the shallow A wave and strong B wave within 4 indicated strength in the wave structure, which carried over into the moderate net depth of the correction.

Again, Figure shows what happened.

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Here we have an illustration from another market of the tendency for a correction to terminate in the area of travel of the preceding fourth wave of one lesser degree.

Our analysis of small degree wave sequences over the last twenty years further validates the proposition that the usual limitation of any bear market is the travel area of the preceding fourth wave of one lesser degree, particularly when the bear market in question is itself a fourth wave.

However, in a clearly reasonable modification of the guideline, it is often the case that if the first wave in a sequence extends, the correction following the fifth wave will have as a typical limit the bottom of the second wave of lesser degree.

For example, the decline into March in the DJIA bottomed exactly at the low of the second wave in March , which followed an extended first wave off the December low. On occasion, a flat correction or triangle, particularly if it follows an extension, will fail, usually by a slim margin, to reach into the fourth wave area see Example 3.

A zigzag, on occasion, will cut deeply and move down into the area of the second wave of lesser degree, although this almost exclusively occurs when the zigzag is itself a second wave. Having cumulatively observed the hourly changes in the DJIA for over twenty years, the authors are convinced that Elliott imprecisely stated some of his findings with respect to both the occurrence of extensions and the market action following an extension.

The most important empirically derived rule that can be distilled from our observations of market behavior is that when the fifth wave of an advance is an extension, the ensuing correction will be sharp and find support at the level of the low of wave two of the extension.

Sometimes the correction ends there, as illustrated in Figure , and sometimes only wave A ends there. Although a limited number of real life examples exist, the precision with which A waves have reversed at this level is remarkable.

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Figure is an illustration showing both a zigzag and an expanded flat correction. Since the low of the second wave of an extension is commonly in or near the price territory of the immediately preceding fourth wave of one larger degree, this guideline implies behavior similar to that of the preceding guideline. It is notable for its precision , however.

Additional value is provided by the fact that fifth wave extensions are typically followed by swift retracements. Their occurrence, then, is an advance warning of a dramatic reversal to a specific level, a powerful combination of knowledge. This guideline need not apply when the market is ending a fifth wave at more than one degree, yet the action in Figure see above reference suggests that we should still view this level as at least potential or temporary support.

One of the guidelines of the Wave Principle is that two of the motive waves in a five-wave sequence will tend toward equality in time and magnitude. This is generally true of the two non-extended waves when one wave is an extension, and it is especially true if the third wave is the extension. If perfect equality is lacking, a. When waves are larger than Intermediate degree, the price relationships usually must be stated in percentage terms. When waves are of Intermediate degree or below, the price equality can usually be stated in arithmetic terms, since the percentage lengths will also be nearly equivalent.

Thus, in the year-end rally of , we find that wave 1 traveled The guideline of equality is often extremely accurate. Hamilton Bolton always kept an "hourly close" chart, i. Elliott himself certainly followed the same practice, since in The Wave Principle , he presents an hourly chart of stock prices from February 23 to March 31, Bar charts are fine but can be misleading by revealing fluctuations that occur near the time changes for each bar but not those that occur within the time for the bar.

Actual print figures must be used on all plots. The so-called "opening" and "theoretical intraday" figures published for the Dow averages are statistical inventions that do not reflect the averages at any particular moment. Respectively, these figures represent a sum of the opening prices, which can occur at different times, and of the daily highs or lows of each individual stock in the average regardless of the time of day each extreme occurs.

This exercise is easy as long as the wave counts are clear, as in fast-moving, emotional markets, particularly in impulse waves, when minor movements generally unfold in an uncomplicated manner. In these cases, short term charting is necessary to view all subdivisions. However, in lethargic or choppy markets, particularly in corrections, wave structures are more likely to be complex and slow to develop.

In these cases, a longer term chart often effectively condenses the action into a form that clarifies the pattern in progress.

With a proper reading of the Wave Principle, there are times when a sideways trend can be forecasted for instance, for a fourth wave when wave two is a zigzag.

Even when anticipated, though, complexity and lethargy are two of the most frustrating occurrences for the analyst. Nevertheless, they are part of the reality of the market and must be taken into account. The authors highly recommend that during such periods you take some time off from the market to enjoy the profits made during the rapidly unfolding impulse waves. When the market rests, do the same. The investor is concerned with percentage gain or loss, not the number of points traveled in a market average.

For instance, ten points in the DJIA in meant a one percent move. In the early s, ten points meant a ten percent move, quite a bit more important. For ease of charting, however, we suggest using semilog scale only for long term plots, where the difference is especially noticeable. Arithmetic scale is quite acceptable for tracking hourly waves since a 40 point rally with the DJIA at is not much different in percentage terms from a 40 point rally with the DJIA at Thus, channeling techniques work acceptably well on arithmetic scale with shorter term moves.

Elliott noted that a parallel trend channel typically marks the upper and lower boundaries of an impulse wave, often with dramatic precision. You should draw one as early as possible to assist in determining wave targets and provide clues to the future development of trends.

The initial channeling technique for an impulse requires at least three reference points. When wave three ends, connect the points labeled 1 and 3, then draw a parallel line touching the point labeled 2, as shown in Figure This construction provides an estimated boundary for wave four.

If the fourth wave ends at a point not touching the parallel, you must reconstruct the channel in order to estimate the boundary for wave five. First connect the ends of waves two and four. If waves one and three are normal, the upper parallel most accurately forecasts the end of wave five when drawn touching the peak of wave three, as in Figure If wave three is abnormally strong, almost vertical, then a parallel drawn from its top may be too high.

Experience has shown that a parallel to the baseline that touches the top of wave one is then more useful, as in our depiction of gold bullion from August to March see Figure In some cases, it may be useful to draw both potential upper boundary lines to alert you to be especially attentive to the wave count and volume characteristics at those levels and then take appropriate action as the wave count warrants.

Always remember that all degrees of trend are operating at the same time. Sometimes, for instance, a fifth wave of Intermediate degree within a fifth wave of Primary degree will end when it reaches the upper channel lines at both degrees simultaneously.

Or sometimes a throw-over at Supercycle degree will terminate precisely when prices reach the upper line of the channel at Cycle degree. Zigzag corrections often form channels with four touch points. One line connects the starting point of wave A and then end of wave B; the other line touches the end of wave A and end end of wave C. Once the former line is established, a parallel line drawn from the end of wave A is an excellent tool for recognizing the exact end of the entire correction.

Within a parallel channel or the converging lines of a diagonal, if a fifth wave approaches its upper trendline on declining volume, it is an indication that the end of the wave will meet or fall short of it.

If volume is heavy as the fifth wave approaches its upper trendline, it indicates a possible penetration of the upper line, which Elliott called a "throw-over. A throw-over is confirmed by an immediate reversal back below the line. A throw-over can also occur, with the same characteristics, in a declining market. Elliott correctly warned that a throw-over at large degree causes difficulty in identifying the waves of smaller degree during the throw-over, as smaller degree channels are sometimes penetrated on the upside during the final fifth wave.

Figures , and show real-life examples of throw-overs. Elliott contended that the necessity of channeling on semilog scale indicated the presence of inflation. To date, no student of the Wave Principle has questioned this assumption, which is demonstrably incorrect. Some of the differences apparent to Elliott may have been due to differences in the degree of waves that he was plotting, since the larger the degree, the more necessary a semilog scale usually becomes.

On the other hand, the virtually perfect channels that were formed by the market on semilog scale see Figure and the market on arithmetic scale see Figure indicate that waves of the same degree will form the correct Elliott trend channel only when plotted selectively on the appropriate scale. On arithmetic scale, the s bull market accelerates beyond the upper boundary, while on semilog scale the s bull market falls far short of the upper boundary.

This monetary background convinces us that inflation is not the reason behind the necessity for use of semilog scale. In fact, aside from this difference in channeling, these two waves of Cycle dimension are surprisingly similar: The essential difference between the two bull markets is the shape and time length of each individual subwave.

At most, we can state that the necessity for semilog scale indicates a wave that is in the process of acceleration, for whatever mass psychological reasons.

Given a single price objective and a specific length of time allotted, anyone can draw a satisfactory hypothetical Elliott wave channel from the same point of origin on both arithmetic and semilog scale by adjusting the slope of the 75 waves to fit. Thus, the question of whether to expect a parallel channel on arithmetic or semilog scale is still unresolved as far as developing a tenet on the subject.

If the price development at any point does not fall neatly within two parallel lines on the scale you are using, switch to the other scale in order to observe the channel in correct perspective. To stay on top of all developments, you should always use both. Elliott used volume as a tool for verifying wave counts and in projecting extensions.

He recognized that in a bull market, volume has a natural tendency to expand and contract with the speed of price change. Late in a corrective phase, a decline in volume often indicates a decline in selling pressure. A low point in volume often coincides with a turning point in the market. In a normal fifth wave below Primary degree, volume tends to be less than in the third wave.

If volume in an advancing fifth wave of less than Primary degree is equal to or greater than that in the third wave, an extension of the fifth is in force. While this outcome is often to be expected anyway if the first and third waves are about equal in length, it is an excellent warning of those rare times when both a third and a fifth wave are extended.

At Primary degree and greater, volume tends to be higher in an advancing fifth wave merely because of the natural long term growth in the number of participants in bull markets. Elliott noted, in fact, that volume at the terminal point of a bull market above Primary degree tends to run at an all-time high. Finally, as discussed earlier, volume often spikes briefly at the throw-over point of a parallel trend channel line or the resistance line of a diagonal.

Upon occasion, such a point can occur simultaneously, as when a diagonal fifth wave terminates right at the upper parallel of the channel containing the price action of one larger degree. In addition to these few valuable observations, we have expanded upon the importance of volume in various sections of this book. To the extent that volume guides wave counting or expectations, it is most significant.

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Elliott once said that volume independently follows the patterns of the Wave Principle, a claim for which the authors find no convincing evidence. The overall appearance of a wave must conform to the appropriate illustration.

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Although any five-wave sequence can be forced into a three-wave count by labeling the first three subdivisions as a single wave A, as shown in Figure , it is incorrect to do so.

Elliott analysis would lose its anchor if such contortions were allowed.

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If wave four terminates well above the top of wave one, a five-wave sequence must be classified as an impulse. Since wave A in this hypothetical case is composed of three waves, wave B would be expected to drop to about the start of wave A, as in a flat correction, which it clearly does not.

While the internal count of a wave is a guide to its classification, the right overall shape is, in turn, often a guide to its correct internal count. The "right look" of a wave is dictated by all the considerations we have outlined so far in the first two chapters. Elliott cautioned that "the right look" may not be evident at all degrees of trend simultaneously. The solution is to focus on the degrees that are clearest. If the hourly chart is confusing, step back and look at the daily or weekly chart.

Conversely, if 77 the weekly chart offers too many possibilities, concentrate on the shorter term movements until the bigger picture clarifies. Generally speaking, you need short term charts to analyze subdivisions in fast moving markets and long term charts for slowly moving markets.

The idea of wave personality is a substantial expansion of the Wave Principle. It has the advantage of bringing human behavior more personally into the equation. The personality of each wave in the Elliott sequence is an integral part of the reflection of the mass psychology it embodies. The progression of mass emotions from pessimism to optimism and back again tends to follow a similar path each time around, producing similar circumstances at corresponding points in the wave structure. As the Wave Principle indicates, market history repeats but not exactly.

Every wave has siblings same-directional waves of the same degree within a larger wave and cousins samedegree and same-numbered waves within different larger waves but no wave has a twin. Related waves — particularly cousins — have similar market and social characteristics.

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The personality of each wave type is manifest whether the wave is of Grand Supercycle degree or Subminuette. As waves are in the process of unfolding, there are times when several different wave counts are perfectly admissible under all known Elliott rules. It is at these junctures that a knowledge of wave personality can be invaluable.

Recognizing the character of a single wave can often allow you to interpret correctly the complexities of the larger pattern. Sign in. This Wall Street bestseller is the most useful and comprehensive guide to understanding and applying the Wave Principle. A groundbreaking investment classic, Elliott Wave Principle is hailed by reviewers as the "definitive textbook on the Wave Principle.

First published in , Elliott Wave Principle is the definitive text designed to help the Elliott wave novice and veteran practitioner alike. This book will teach you the rules and guidelines of the Wave Principle and help you understand how to apply it to any financial market.

Elliott Wave Principle is now published in seven languages, and continues to sell thousands of copies every year. In Europe, Asia and the Americas, literally millions of investors worldwide use or recognize the Elliott Wave method as the road map for how markets behave.

The basic tenets of Wave Theory: You'll read simple explanations of the terms, and how to identify all 13 waves that can occur in the price movement of financial markets.

The rules and guidelines of Wave analysis: You'll learn the basics of counting waves, how to recognize the "right look" of a wave, plus lots of simple steps for applying the rules.

The scientific background of the Wave Principle: How you can see it in nature and the universe, in art and mathematics, even in the shape of the human body. Long-term waves: You'll see how the Wave Principle gives history greater meaning, from the fall of the Roman Empire through the Middle Ages into the financial upheavals of the 20th Century.

Understanding these monumental trends will help you position yourself for long-term profit and protection. Stocks, commodities and gold: The Wave Principle is your guide to the movements of any financial market. Few pleasures can match the exhilaration you'll feel when a Wave Principle forecast has you in the market when it moves up, or takes you out just before it moves down. Laurentiu Damir. Against the Gods. Peter L. The Misbehavior of Markets. Benoit Mandelbrot. Technical Analysis of the Financial Markets.

John J. Fibonacci Analysis. Constance Brown. What About Options?: A Prelude to Profitable Options Trading. Constance M. The introductory guide to candlestick trading and to the most effective strategies of Technical Analysis. Stefano Calicchio. Chart Patterns. Bruce M. Technical Analysis. Julie Dahlquist.

Moshe A. The Gartley Trading Method. Ross Beck. Mastering Elliott Wave Principle. Trade What You See. Larry Pesavento. Trades About to Happen. David H. Frequently Asked Questions in Quantitative Finance.

Paul Wilmott. The Money Formula. John Allen Paulos. Technical Analysis for the Trading Professional. Breakthrough Strategies for Predicting Any Market. Jeff Greenblatt. Trading Triads. Felipe Tudela. Charles D. Kirkpatrick II. Harmonic Elliott Wave. Ian Copsey. Gary Smith. Plight of the Fortune Tellers. Riccardo Rebonato. New Cambridge Statistical Tables. Investing with Volume Analysis: Identify, Follow, and Profit from Trends.

Buff Pelz Dormeier. Mathematics of the Financial Markets.