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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Art of Public Speaking by Dale . It is futile, we assert, to lay down systems of rules for voice culture, intonation, gesture, and what not, .. Why are you free from it under the stress of unusual excitement? 5. Free download of The Art of Public Speaking by Dale Carnegie. Available in PDF , ePub and Kindle. Read, write reviews and more. The art of public speaking / Stephen Lucas. i 10th ed. p. cm. sequently, one of the Nov 5, The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Art Of Writing & Speaking.
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It is not the revolution that destroys the machinery but the friction. Change of Pitch Produces Emphasis This is a highly important statement. Variety in pitch maintains the hearer's interest, but one of the surest ways to compel attention— to secure unusual emphasis— is to change the pitch of your voice suddenly and in a marked degree.
A great contrast always arouses attention. White shows whiter against black; a cannon roars louder in the Sahara silence than in the Chicago hurly burly— these are simple illustrations of the power of contrast. High pitch I I 1 1 do not know.
Newell Dwight Hillis recently achieved great emphasis and suggested the gravity of the question he had raised. The foregoing order of pitch-change might be reversed with equally good effect, though with a slight change in seriousness— either method produces emphasis when used intelligently, that is, with a common-sense appreciation of the sort of emphasis to be attained. In attempting these contrasts of pitch it is important to avoid unpleasant extremes. Most speakers pitch their voices too high.
One of the secrets of Mr. Shakespeare said that a soft, gentle, low voice was "an excellent thing in woman;" it is no less so in man, for a voice need not be blatant to be powerful,— and must not be, to be pleasing. In closing, let us emphasize anew the importance of using variety of pitch. You sing up and down the scale, first touching one note and then another above or below it.
Do likewise in speaking. Thought and individual taste must generally be your guide as to where to use a low, a moderate, or a high pitch. Name two methods of destroying monotony and gaining force in speaking. Why is a continual change of pitch necessary in speaking?
Notice your habitual tones in speaking. Are they too high to be pleasant? Do we express the following thoughts and emotions in a low or a high pitch? Which may be expressed in either high or low pitch? How would you naturally vary the pitch in introducing an explanatory or parenthetical expression like the following: He started — that is, he made preparations to start — on September third.
Speak the following lines with as marked variations in pitch as your interpretation of the sense may dictate. Try each line in two different ways.
Which, in each instance, is the more effective— and why? To engage our nation in such a compact would be an infamy. In the foregoing sentence, experiment as to where the change in pitch would better be made. Once the flowers distilled their fragrance here, but now see the devastations of war. He had reckoned without one prime factor— his conscience. Make a diagram of a conversation you have heard, showing where high and low pitches were used.
Were these changes in pitch advisable? Why or why not? Read the selections on pages 34, 35, 36, 37 and 38, paying careful attention to the changes in pitch. Reread, substituting low pitch for high, and vice versa. Selections for Practise Note: In the following selections, those passages that may best be delivered in a moderate pitch are printed in ordinary roman type.
Those which may be rendered in a high pitch— do not make the mistake of raising the voice too high— are printed in italics. These arrangements, however, are merely suggestive— we cannot make it strong enough that you must use your own judgment in interpreting a selection. Before doing so, however, it is well to practise these passages as they are marked. Yes, all men labor. In popular acceptation, the working class means the men that work with their hands, for wages, so many hours a day, employed by great capitalists; that work for everybody else.
Why do we move for this class? As they responded so shall we. Remember that two sentences, or two parts of the same sentence, which contain changes of thought, cannot possibly be given effectively in the same key. Let us repeat, every big change of thought requires a big change of pitch. What the beginning student will think are big changes of pitch will be monotonously alike. Learn to speak some thoughts in a very high tone— others in a very, very low tone. It is almost impossible to use too much of it.
Strange apparition! God bless the memory of those immortal workers, and prosper the fortunes of their living sons— and peipetuate the inspiration of their handiwork Far to the South, Mr. It is the home of a brave and hospitable people. In the same field the clover steals the fragrance of the wind, and tobacco catches the quick aroma of the rains. Of the three essential items of all industries— cotton, iron and wood— that region has easy control.
From this assured and permanent advantage, against which artificial conditions cannot much longer prevail, has grown an amazing system of industries. Not maintained by human contrivance of tariff or capital, afar off from the fullest and cheapest source of supply, but resting in divine assurance, within touch of field and mine and forest— not set amid costly farms from which competition has driven the fanner in despair, but amid cheap and sunny lands, rich with agriculture, to which neither season nor soil has set a limit— this system of industries is mounting to a splendor that shall dazzle and illumine the world.
The uplifting force of the American idea is under every throne on earth. God has sown in our soil the seed of His millennial harvest, and He will not lay the sickle to the ripening crop until His full and perfect day has come.
Drill on the following selections for change of pitch: Beecher's "Abraham Lincoln," p. Now meekly calm, now wild in wrath. The Latins have bequeathed to us a word that has no precise equivalent in our tongue, therefore we have accepted it, body unchanged— it is the word tempo, and means rate of movement, as measured by the time consumed in executing that movement.
Thus far its use has been largely 7 limited to the vocal and musical aits, but it would not be surprising to hear tempo applied to more concrete matters, for it perfectly illustrates the real meaning of the word to say that an ox-cart moves in slow tempo, an express train in a fast tempo. Our guns that fire six hundred times a minute, shoot at a fast tempo; the old muzzle loader that required three minutes to load, shot at a slow tempo.
Every musician understands this principle: Now tempo is a tremendously important element in good platform work, for when a speaker delivers a whole address at very nearly the same rate of speed he is depriving himself of one of his chief means of emphasis and power.
The baseball pitcher, the bowler in cricket, the tennis server, all know the value of change of pace— change of tempo— in delivering their ball, and so must the public speaker observe its power.
Change of Tempo Lends Naturalness to the Delivery Naturalness, or at least seeming naturalness, as was explained in the chapter on "Monotony," is greatly to be desired, and a continual change of tempo will go a long way towards establishing it.
Howard Lindsay, Stage Manager for Miss Margaret Anglin, recently said to the present writer that change of pace was one of the most effective tools of the actor. While it must be admitted that the stilted mouthings of many actors indicate cloudy mirrors, still the public speaker would do well to study the actor's use of tempo.
There is, however, a more fundamental and effective source at which to study naturalness— a trait which, once lost, is shy of recapture: This is the standard we strive to reach on both stage and platform— with certain differences, of course, which will appear as we go on. If speaker and actor were to reproduce with absolute fidelity every variation of utterance— every whisper, grunt, pause, silence, and explosion— of conversation as we find it typically in everyday life, much of the interest would leave the public utterance.
Naturalness in public address is something more than faithful reproduction of nature— it is the reproduction of those typical parts of nature's work which are truly representative of the whole.
The realistic story-writer understands this in writing dialogue, and we must take it into account in seeking for naturalness through change of tempo. Suppose you speak the first of the following sentences in a slow tempo, the second quickly, observing how natural is the effect.
Then speak both with the same rapidity and note the difference. I can't recall what I did with my knife. Oh, now I remember I gave it to Mary. We see here that a change of tempo often occurs in the same sentence— for tempo applies not only to single words, groups of words, and groups of sentences, but to the major parts of a public speech as well.
In the following, speak the words "long, long while" very slowly; the rest of the sentence is spoken in moderately rapid tempo. When you and I behind the Veil are past, Oh but the long, long while the world shall last. Which of our coming and departure heeds, As the seven seas should heed a pebble cast. In the following selections the passages that should be given a fast tempo are in italics; those that should be given in a slow tempo are in small capitals.
Practise these selections, and then tty others, changing from fast to slow tempo on different parts, carefully noting the effect. Ah no. To get a natural effect, where would you use slow and where fast tempo in the following?
She's a grim old hag, is Fate, For she let him have his pile, Smiling to herself the while, Knowing what the cost would be.
When he'd found the Golden Key. Multimillionaire is he. Came here many years ago. Let his friends and kin desert him. While he planned and plugged and hurried On his quest for gold and power. Every single wakeful hour With a money thought he'd dower; All the while as he grew older, And grew bolder, he grew colder. And he thought that some day He would take the time to play; But, say— he was wrong.
The roses were red as he went rushing by. So he kept on and swept on Through mean, sordid years. Now he's up to his ears In the choicest of stocks. He owns endless blocks Of houses and shops, And the stream never stops Pouring into his hanks.
I suppose that he ranks Pretty near to the top. What I have wouldn't sop His ambition one tittle; And yet with my little I don't care to trade With the bargain he made. Just watch him to-day— See him trying to play. He's come back for blue skies. The leaves lie aground, And the gay brook that wound With a swirling and whirling Of waters, is furling Its bosom in ice.
And he hasn't the price, With all of his gold, To buy what he sold. He knows now the cost Of the spring-time he lost. Of the flowers he tossed From his way. And, say. He'd pay Any price if the day Could be made not so gray. He can't play. Used by permission of Everybody's Magazine. If King Solomon had been an orator he undoubtedly would have gathered wisdom from the song of the wild birds as well as from the bees.
Imagine a song written with but quarter notes. Imagine an auto with only one speed. Note the change of tempo indicated in the following, and how it gives a pleasing variety. Read it aloud. Fast tempo is indicated by italics, slow by small capitals. The roses were red as he went rushing by, and glorious tapestries hung in the sky. Turn to "Fools Gold," on Page 42, and deliver it in an unvaried tempo: This poem requires a great many changes of tempo, and is an excellent one for practise.
Use the changes of tempo indicated in the following, noting how they prevent monotony. Where no change of tempo is indicated, use a moderate speed. Too much of variety would really be a return to monotony. Less than a hundred years ago a furious rabble smashed Thimonier's invention, the sewing machine. Emerson says: The mob is man voluntarily descended to the nature of the beast. It would tar - and feather justice by inflicting fire and outrage upon the house and persons of those who have these.
Every week gives a fresh victim to its malignant cry for blood. There were 48 persons killed by mobs in the United States in ; 64 in , and 71 in Among the 48 last year - were a woman and a child. Two victims were proven innocent after their death. Change of Tempo Produces Emphasis Any big change of tempo is emphatic and will catch the attention.
You may scarcely be conscious that a passenger train is moving when it is flying over the rails at ninety miles an hour, but if it slows down very suddenly to a ten-mile gait your attention will be drawn to it very decidedly. You may forget that you are listening to music as you dine, but let the orchestra either increase or diminish its tempo in a very marked degree and your attention will be arrested at once. This same principle will procure emphasis in a speech.
If you have a point that you want to bring home to your audience forcefully, make a sudden and great change of tempo, and they will be powerless to keep from paying attention to that point. Recently the present writer saw a play in which these lines were spoken: I want you to remember it the longest day you— I don't care if you've got six guns.
The effect was so emphatic that the lines are remembered six months afterwards, while most of the play has faded from memory. The student who has powers of observation will see this principle applied by all our best actors in their efforts to get emphasis where emphasis is due. But remember that the emotion in the matter must warrant the intensity in the manner, or the effect will be ridiculous.
Too many public speakers are impressive over nothing. Thought rather than rules must govern you while practising change of pace. It is often a matter of no consequence which part of a sentence is spoken slowly and which is given in fast tempo. The main thing to be desired is the change itself. For example, in the selection, "The Mob," on page 46, note the last paragraph. Reverse the instructions given, delivering everything that is marked for slow tempo, quickly; and everything that is marked for quick tempo, slowly.
You will note that the force or meaning of the passage has not been destroyed. However, many passages cannot be changed to a slow tempo without destroying their force. I was rich in flowers and trees, humming-birds and honey-bees; for my sport the squirrel played; plied the snouted mole his spade; for my taste the blackberry cone purpled over hedge and stone; laughed the brook for my delight through the day and through the night, whispering at the garden wall, talked with me from fall to fall; mine the sand-rimmed pickerel pond; mine the walnut slopes beyond; mine, an bending orchard trees, apples of Hesperides!
Still, as my horizon grew, larger grew my riches, too; ah the world I saw or knew seemed a complex Chinese toy, fashioned for a barefoot boy! Be careful in regulating your tempo not to get your movement too fast. This is a common fault with amateur speakers. Siddons rule was, "Take time. That seems a rather poor scheme for medical practice, but it is good to use "shot gun" tempo for most speeches, as it gives a variety. Tempo, like diet, is best when mixed.
Define tempo. What words come from the same root? What is meant by a change of tempo? What effects are gained by it? Name three methods of destroying monotony and gaining force in speaking. Note the changes of tempo in a conversation or speech that you hear.
Read selections on pages 34, 35, 36, 37, and 38, paying careful attention to change of tempo. As a rule, excitement, joy, or intense anger take a fast tempo, while sorrow, and sentiments of great dignity or solemnity tend to a slow tempo.
Practise the following selections, noting carefully where the tempo may be changed to advantage. Experiment, making numerous changes. Which one do you like best?
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation— or any nation so conceived and so dedicated— can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We are met to dedicate a portion of it as the final resting-place of those who have given their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow, this ground.
The world will very little note nor long remember what we say here; but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work they have thus far so nobly carried on. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us: It is recorded in full in the Congressional Record of that date.
Thurston died in Cuba. As a dying request she urged her husband, who was investigating affairs in the island, to do his utmost to induce the United States to intervene— hence this oration.
President, I am here by command of silent lips to speak once and for all upon the Cuban situation.
I shall endeavor to be honest, conservative, and just. I have no puipose to stir the public passion to any action not necessary and imperative to meet the duties and necessities of American responsibility, Christian humanity, and national honor. I would shirk this task if I could, but I dare not. I cannot satisfy my conscience except by speaking, and speaking now.
I went to Cuba firmly believing that the condition of affairs there had been greatly exaggerated by the press, and my own efforts were directed in the first instance to the attempted exposure of these supposed exaggerations.
There has undoubtedly been much sensationalism in the journalism of the time, but as to the condition of affairs in Cuba, there has been no exaggeration, because exaggeration has been impossible.
Under the inhuman policy of Weyler not less than four hundred thousand self-supporting, simple, peaceable, defenseless country people were driven from their homes in the agricultural portions of the Spanish provinces to the cities, and imprisoned upon the barren waste outside the residence portions of these cities and within the lines of intrenchment established a little way beyond. Their humble homes were burned, their fields laid waste, their implements of husbandry destroyed, their live stock and food supplies for the most part confiscated.
Most of the people were old men, women, and children. They were thus placed in hopeless imprisonment, without shelter or food. There was no work for them in the cities to which they were driven. They were left with nothing to depend upon except the scanty charity of the inhabitants of the cities and with slow starvation their inevitable fate The pictures in the American newspapers of the starving reconcentrados arc true.
They can all be duplicated by the thousands. I never before saw, and please God I may never again see, so deplorable a sight as the reconcentrados in the suburbs of Matanzas. I can never forget to my dying day the hopeless anguish in their despairing eyes. Huddled about their little bark huts, they raised no voice of appeal to us for alms as we went among them Men, women, and children stand silent, famishing with hunger. Their only appeal comes from their sad eyes, through which one looks as through an open window into their agonizing souls.
The government of Spain has not appropriated and will not appropriate one dollar to save these people. They are now being attended and nursed and administered to by the charity of the United States.
Think of the spectacle! We are feeding these citizens of Spain; we are nursing their sick; we are saving such as can be CHAPTER V 31 saved, and yet there are those who still say it is right for us to send food, but we must keep hands off. I say that the time has come when muskets ought to go with the food. We asked the governor if he knew of any relief for these people except through the charity of the United States.
He did not. We asked him, "When do you think the time will come that these people can be placed in a position of self-support? I shall refer to these horrible things no further. They are there. God pity me, I have seen them; they will remain in my mind forever— and this is almost the twentieth century.
Christ died nineteen hundred years ago, and Spain is a Christian nation. She has set up more crosses in more lands, beneath more skies, and under them has butchered more people than all the other nations of the earth combined.
Europe may tolerate her existence as long as the people of the Old World wish. God grant that before another Christmas morning the last vestige of Spanish tyranny and oppression will have vanished from the Western Hemisphere! The time for action has come. No greater reason for it can exist to-morrow than exists to-day. Only one power can intervene— the United States of America.
Ours is the one great nation in the world, the mother of American republics. She holds a position of trust and responsibility toward the peoples and affairs of the whole Western Hemisphere. It was her glorious example which inspired the patriots of Cuba to raise the flag of liberty in her eternal hills. We cannot refuse to accept this responsibility which the God of the universe has placed upon us as the one great power in the New World.
We must act! What shall our action be? Against the intervention of the United States in this holy cause there is but one voice of dissent; that voice is the voice of the money-changers.
They fear war! Not because of any Christian or ennobling sentiment against war and in favor of peace, but because they fear that a declaration of war, or the intervention which might result in war, would have a depressing effect upon the stock market. Let them go. They do not represent American sentiment; they do not represent American patriotism. Let them take their chances as they can.
Their weal or woe is of but little importance to the liberty-loving people of the United States. They will not do the fighting; their blood will not flow; they will keep on dealing in options on human life. Let the men whose loyalty is to the dollar stand aside while the men whose loyalty is to the flag come to the front.
President, there is only one action possible, if any is taken; that is, intervention for the independence of the island. But we cannot intervene and save Cuba without the exercise of force, and force means war; war means blood. The lowly Nazarene on the shores of Galilee preached the divine doctrine of love, "Peace on earth, good will toward men.
Not good will toward men who despoil, enslave, degrade, and starve to death their fellow-men. I believe in the doctrine of Christ. I believe in the doctrine of peace; but, Mr. President, men must have liberty before there can come abiding peace. Intervention means force. Lorce means war. War means blood. When has a battle for humanity and liberty ever been won except by force?
What barricade of wrong, injustice, and oppression has ever been carried except by force? Lorce compelled the signature of unwilling royalty to the great Magna Charta; force put life into the Declaration of Independence and made effective the Emancipation Proclamation; force beat with naked hands upon the iron gateway of the Bastile and made reprisal in one awful hour for centuries of kingly crime; force waved the flag of revolution over Bunker Hill and marked the snows of Valley Lorge with blood-stained feet; force held the broken line of Shiloh, climbed the flame-swept hill at Chattanooga, and stormed the clouds on Lookout Heights; force marched with Sherman to the sea, rode with Sheridan in the valley of the Shenandoah, and gave Grant victory at Appomattox; force saved the Union, kept the stars in the flag, made "niggers" men.
Let the impassioned lips of American patriots once more take up the song: With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me; As He died to make men holy, let us die to make men free.
While God is marching on. To manage it, with its delicacies and compensations, requires that same fineness of car on which we must depend for all faultless prose rhythm. When there is no compensation, when the pause is inadvertent Pause, in public speech, is not mere silence— it is silence made designedly eloquent. When a man says: It is conceivable that a speaker may be effective in spite of stumbling— but never because of it.
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On the other hand, one of the most important means of developing power in public speaking is to pause either before or after, or both before and after, an important word or phrase. No one who would be a forceful speaker can afford to neglect this principle— one of the most significant that has ever been inferred from listening to great orators. Study this potential device until you have absorbed and assimilated it.
It would seem that this principle of rhetorical pause ought to be easily grasped and applied, but a long experience in training both college men and maturer speakers has demonstrated that the device is no more readily understood by the average man when it is first explained to him than if it were spoken in Hindoostani.
Perhaps this is because we do not eagerly devour the fruit of experience when it is impressively set before us on the platter of authority; we like to pluck fruit for ourselves— it not only tastes better, but we never forget that tree!
Fortunately, this is no difficult task, in this instance, for the trees stand thick all about us. One man is pleading the cause of another: See how he gathered up reserve force and impressiveness to deliver the words "for you and me.
Did it lose in effectiveness?
Naturally enough, during a premeditated pause of this kind the mind of the speaker is concentrated on the thought to which he is about to give expression. He will not dare to allow his thoughts to wander for an instant— he will rather supremely center his thought and his emotion upon the sacrifice whose service, sweetness and divinity he is enforcing by his appeal.
Concentration, then, is the big word here— no pause without it can perfectly hit the mark. Efficient pausing accomplishes one or all of four results: Consider Custer's massacre as an instance. You can light a match by holding it beneath a lens and concentrating the sun's rays.
You would not expect the match to flame if you jerked the lens back and forth quickly. Pause, and the lens gathers the heat. Your thoughts will not set fire to the minds of your hearers unless you pause to gather the force that comes by a second or two of concentration.
Maple trees and gas wells are rarely tapped continually; when a stronger flow is wanted, a pause is made, nature has time to gather her reserve forces, and when the tree or the well is reopened, a stronger flow is the result. Use the same common sense with your mind. If you would make a thought particularly effective, pause just before its utterance, concentrate your mind-energies, and then give it expression with renewed vigor.
Carlyle was right: Out of silence comes thy strength. Speech is silvern, Silence is golden; Speech is human, Silence is divine. It should be. Too many of our public speeches have no fathers. They ramble along without pause or break. Like Tennyson's brook, they run on forever. Listen to little children, the policeman on the corner, the family conversation around the table, and see how many pauses they naturally use, for they are unconscious of effects.
Silent Spring by Rachel Carson
When we get before an audience, we throw most of our natural methods of expression to the wind, and strive after artificial effects. Get back to the methods of nature— and pause. So it is— and all perfect motion is rhythm. Part of rhythm is rest. Rest follows activity all through nature. Pause, and give the attention-powers of your audience a rest.
What you say after such a silence will then have a great deal more effect. When your country cousins come to town, the noise of a passing car will awaken them, though it seldom affects a seasoned city dweller. By the continual passing of cars his attention-power has become deadened. In one who visits the city but seldom, attention- value is insistent. To him the noise comes after a long pause; hence its power.
To you, dweller in the city, there is no pause; hence the low attention- value. After riding on a Lain several hours you will become so accustomed to its roar that it will lose its attention- value, unless the Lain should stop for a while and start again. If you attempt to listen to a clock-tick that is so far away that you can barely hear it, you will find that at times you are unable to distinguish it, but in a few moments the sound becomes distinct again.
Your mind will pause for rest whether you desire it to do so or not. The attention of your audience will act in quite the same way. Recognize this law and prepare for it— by pausing. Let it be repeated: What is said to you of a night will not have the same effect on your mind as if it had been uttered in the morning when your attention had been lately refreshed by the pause of sleep.
We are told on the first page of the Bible that even the Creative Energy of God rested on the "seventh day. Observe nature, study her laws, and obey them in your speaking. Pause Creates Effective Suspense Suspense is responsible for a great share of our interest in life; it will be the same with your speech.
We like to keep guessing as to the outcome. The ability to create suspense is part of woman's power to hold the other sex. The circus acrobat employs this principle when he fails puiposely in several attempts to perform a feat, and then achieves it.
Even the deliberate manner in which he arranges the preliminaries increases our expectation— we like to be kept waiting. In the last act of the play, "Polly of the Circus," there is a circus scene in which a little dog turns a backward somersault on the back of a running pony.
One night when he hesitated and had to be coaxed and worked with a long time before he would perform his feat he got a great deal more applause than when he did his trick at once. We not only like to wait but we appreciate what we wait for. If fish bite too readily the sport soon ceases to be a sport. It is this same principle of suspense that holds you in a Sherlock Holmes story— you wait to see how the mystery is solved, and if it is solved too soon you throw down the tale unfinished.
Wilkie Collins' receipt for fiction writing well applies to public speech: Thus pause is a valuable instrument in the hands of a trained speaker to arouse and maintain suspense.
We once heard Mr. Bryan say in a speech: Bryan paused slightly again and continued: Moody, then continued— "as the greatest preacher of his day. It is precisely the application of these small things that makes much of the difference between the successful and the unsuccessful speaker. Pausing After An Important Idea Gives it Time to Penetrate Any Missouri farmer will tell you that a rain that falls too fast will run off into the creeks and do the crops but little good.
A story is told of a country deacon praying for rain in this manner: Just give us a good old drizzle-drazzle. The farmer's wife follows this same principle in doing her washing when she puts the clothes in water— and pauses for several hours that the water may soak in. The physician puts cocaine on your turbinates— and pauses to let it take hold before he removes them. Why do we use this principle everywhere except in the communication of ideas?
If you have given the audience a big idea, pause for a second or two and let them turn it over. See what effect it has. After the smoke clears away you may have to fire another inch shell on the same subject before you demolish the citadel of error that you are trying to destroy. Take time. Don't let your speech resemble those tourists who try "to do" New York in a day. Take time, you have just as much of it as our richest multimillionaire. It is a matter of choice.
Because he knew "doing" was the essential ingredient to learning a new skill successfully, each chapter comes with its homework to drive the key points home. Today the course is global. The company website says that approximately 8 million people have completed its training programs. The core of his teaching is simple: In other words, language and how we use it, shapes our lives, our world.
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